- Benefits for services in the field of public utilities, communications, transportation
- Benefits at retirement
- What right has a large family
- Payments to families with many children
- How to solve the demographic problem, and can it be done
Almost all European countries have a law aimed at supporting large families. Russia is no exception. In recent years, significantly expanded the rights of mothers with many children, increased child benefits, has more benefits. It would seem that many children need to feel secure enough, but it's not as easy as it might seem at first glance. The law is (or rather, even laws), but its mechanism of action is not discharged in the best way, which leads to a variety of problems. And often, to get the benefits, mothers of large families have to pester officials' offices.
Why is this happening? Why does not the law, and if they work, with big scratch? We will try to at least partially understand the situation and respond to large mothers, single mothers on the most vital issues that concern them.
To begin with, whom the law considers the mother of many children. Federal law states that such a woman who is dependent on its three or more children (under 18 years). In addition to federal laws in each region of the Russian Federation to develop their programs aimed at supporting large families living in a particular region (country, province, region).
Help these families is in different areas. We have tried to arrange the main benefits and payments, which can expect mothers of large families, including single mothers who are raising three or more children.
Benefits for services in the field of public utilities, communications, transportation
Today, tariffs for housing and communal services, which are expensive and so are growing with an enviable constancy. And, of course, those benefits, compensation and benefits to which families with children are all right, play a very important role in the family budget. So, if you pay utilities family with three children receive a 30 percent discount. If a family of four to six children, the discount is 50 percent, and in the presence of seven or more children, the family is exempt from the payment completely.
In addition, families receive a 50 percent discount to pay for telephone services. Parents with 5 or more children receive monthly payments to reimburse the cost of public transport.
To date, many children there are a list of benefits. Mothers receive a monthly allowance for the period of leave to care for a child under the age of eighteen (Federal Law "On State benefits for citizens with children" on May 19, 1995). The allowance for mothers having many children is based on the minimum wage, which is set by federal law, regardless of the number of children.
Benefits at retirement
Federal Law "On labor pensions in the Russian Federation", effective 1 January 2002, provides as follows: women who have given birth five or more children and raised them up to 8 years are entitled to a pension upon reaching 50 years old with 15 years of insurance. If the experience is not available, the old age pension is assigned on a general basis. For rural women, who gave birth to five or more children and raised them to the age of 8, the law provides for retirement at 50 years without any reservations.
What right has a large family
A list of the rights of a large family is extensive, but, unfortunately, not always, these rights have real meaning.
Thus, the law states that the large family are entitled to:
- Free meals for children who are in school
- Free medicines on prescription
- free textbooks
- free education in art schools
- free admission to zoos
- free travel on public transport (except taxis and minibuses)
In addition, families with children are entitled to free land, and also to receive significant compensation from the state for housing.
We have listed the most basic rights of large families, in fact there are many more. But many examples show, in practice, these rights are exercised very difficult. Local officials in most cases simply sabotage the fulfillment of the requirements, which puts the law.
No, right would hardly refuse, but getting preferences from the state, enshrined in law, would be decorated with so many bureaucratic obstacles that it will have to spend a lot of time. And is there this time, mothers of large families, which shoulders a big family. What about single mothers raising three or more children?
It is particularly difficult to achieve satisfaction of their rights to land. As a rule, officials say there is no free sites. Here corruption schemes worked out a long time ago, in the sale of land, local authorities earn their money.
Imperfect mechanism of action for the good laws make them viable.
Payments to families with many children
What payment can expect large families - with this question very often refer parents raising three or more children.
Firstly, large families receive monthly allowances from the state for each child.
Second, they are also entitled to receive payment for the purchase of school uniforms (once a year).
If a family of ten children, they also put the payment confined to certain holidays. In addition, mothers of families will receive additional payments upon retirement.
How to solve the demographic problem, and can it be done?
The question, of course, interesting, you can ask it, but we are aware that in the current situation prevailing in the country, it sounds rhetorically. Meanwhile, currently fertility problem is so extensive that it is time to talk about the threat to national security. After all, in fact, we are talking not about the growth of the population, but at least the reproduction.
However, what kind of reproduction can be discussed if the vast majority of families one child, two - that's a lot. Those who decide to become parents of many children - little offensively. According to statistical data, which, as we know, knows all, families with children make up a measly 3 percent of the total number of families with minor children. In other words, families are currently unpopular.
Why is this happening? Life today is not easy. Many do not want to have children already, and for ideological reasons. In the world there is a growing movement under the slogan «Childe free». That is, couples are generally well educated, with a prestigious, well-paid jobs are taking quite a conscious decision not to have children. Never. It scares. But on the other hand, it is their choice, they have a right to it, and no one can force them to do otherwise. But the trend is undoubtedly frightening.
In Russia, too, there are such pairs. They believe that even the birth of a child infringes their own rights, worsens financial status. Those who are determined not so radically, limited to one child, "not wanting to produce misery." That such considerations are guided by many Russians.
How to change the situation? What should be done to the public consciousness took the stereotype that many children are born mostly in asocial families, not caring about their future, that the children receive a decent education?
Probably, a lot depends on the state. It must ensure that any law designed to help large families, to work, rather than remain fine words on paper. Its mechanism of action should be such as to minimize the ordeal of large families who want to get their benefits and payments that are guaranteed by federal law.
Such action by the state, of course, will play a positive role. Society needs to understand that a large family is important not only in terms of changes in the demographic situation in the country. Large family creates and fosters a harmonious personality, rather than a family, bringing up a child. Children from large families more easily adapt to any social setting, they have a stable psyche, they are more sociable.
If short, it is necessary not just to help these families overcome financial problems, adding new cash payments. The main thing - to help large families realize the basic functions of the family - education of these people, without which no country has no future.