In some people, when in contact with certain substances, organisms or the use of certain foods arises an abnormal response of the immune system. This is called allergy.
When the allergen enters the body begins to produce human immunoglobulin class E (IgE). This leads to the release of chemicals and hormones (histamine), which affect the production of protective cells on focal tissues and organs. These processes cause allergic reactions.
Back to contents
Factors influencing the emergence of allergies
Allergies can occur for several reasons:
genetic predisposition (if the parents or one of them had an allergy, the risk of a child it is high);
lowered immunity of the body (with frequent exposure to allergens in the body can disrupt the defense mechanism and develop an allergy);
the frequent use of antibiotics (they disrupt the immune system, which increases the risk of allergy in contact with allergens);
with frequent contact with chemicals.
No one is immune from the development of his allergies. It can occur at any age.
Back to contents
What is an allergy?
On the mechanism of isolated types of allergic reactions immediate and delayed action. In the first case symptoms appear within a few hours after contact with the allergen (anaphylactic, cytotoxic, immunocomplex reaction). Typically, within 4-6 hours. The second type of reaction occurs only after 1-2 days after exposure of the allergen into the body (cellular response).
Each person has a specific reaction of the body to the allergen.
At the same allergen different people have different symptoms appear.
Allergens are many, and they are divided into groups.
Reaction of food
The most common cause allergic reactions such foods as eggs, milk, fish, honey, fruit, chocolate and nuts.
Eggs are an allergen because it contains albumin (egg white). That it often arise light reaction. Some people have a hypersensitivity to the yolk, but it is quite rare. No wonder babies begin to teach it to the eggs with the yolk. Allergy to eggs should be excluded from the diet products, which include egg white (mayonnaise, ice cream).
Milk contains protein casein. That it gives the reaction of the human body. Someone can not eat all dairy products, and some only the origin of a particular animal (cow, goat). The most common allergic reactions to milk are manifested at an early age, because the digestive system is still a small child can not tolerate it. Allergic reactions to milk can be expressed as stomach pain, diarrhea, hives and difficulty breathing.
At the use of seafood allergy can manifest itself on the fish (cod), shrimp, crab, crayfish, lobster and caviar and other products containing fish protein.
Honey is considered a strong allergen. The most common reaction to honey appears in children, as parents use it as a prevention and treatment of colds. The composition of honey includes many components which can cause an allergic reaction. It may appear on sucrose, the pollen of flowers or fructose. Do not use bee products for people with an allergy to them.
Some fruits, especially citrus fruits, can cause an allergic reaction. Most often this occurs in the use of oranges, lemons, tangerines, red berries (raspberries, strawberries). Babies in the diet, these products are administered one of the last, as they can cause a very strong reaction, up to anaphylactic shock.
Many people love chocolate, but when it is used, you may receive an allergic reaction. As with any food allergy the body reacts to the components of the product. Chocolate consists of cocoa, milk, nuts and other chemicals. It is to these substances have allergic hypersensitivity.
Food allergy can cause nuts, mostly peanuts. This type of allergy can cause anaphylaxis in humans, and even lead to death. If you have an allergic reaction to peanuts should be excluded from the diet of all the nuts and use them with caution. Moreover, one should not use those products that contain nuts or prepared based on peanut butter.
Hypersensitivity to the drugs can cause allergies and lead to undesirable consequences. All instructions to the drugs major contraindication is hypersensitivity to its components. Allergies can be caused by almost any drug, other than those which do not affect the immune system.
If you get the drug into the body response may occur immediately or after a few days. Allergies can occur easily with mild symptoms. But with this type of allergy may occur anaphylactic shock and angioedema.
Drug allergies can affect the liver, kidneys and lymphatic system. The danger lies in the fact that in these cases, the symptoms usually do not occur. It should be cautious about taking medications, especially if you have not previously used in the treatment. Be sure to follow dosage specified in the instructions.
Hypersensitivity to animals
Many people, especially children, to have a dream of a pet, you can take care of that. Most often it is dogs and cats. But it was with the advent of the house these animals can develop an allergy.
People think that allergic reactions occur on contact with animal hair, and give birth to hairless cats and dogs. But still there is an allergy. Allergen is animal skin and saliva that gets on the fur when the animal licks itself. Allergens can enter the animal on the bed, furniture or carpet, and even if the pet to give to relatives, the symptoms remain.
Before you buy a cat or a dog for yourself or a child, it's worth checking if you are allergic to them. To do this, you can go to visit friends or relatives who have these animals. Follow the well-being of your loved ones. If there are symptoms similar to allergies, it is best to refrain from settlement at home a cat or dog and make the animal does not cause allergies.
But if you do decide to take a cat or dog in the presence of an allergic reaction to them, it should be kept in the house to spend the dry and wet cleaning, get rid of the carpet. No need to let the animal in a room where there is furniture on which to settle wool, it should not be allowed to sleep on the beds. Regularly wash your pet to allergens from accumulating.
In the spring the number of people suffering from allergies. This is due to the fact that in this season the insects appear. Bites from bees, wasps, hornets, fire ants can cause allergic reactions. Normal phenomenon is the appearance at the site of the bite redness, swelling and itching.
Allergy to insect stings - a reaction to being hit by the poisonous and toxic substances. Most often it manifests itself in multiple bites. Allergies can be mild degree. But at the sharp reaction of the organism occurs anaphylactic shock.
People with allergies to insects should avoid places where their huge accumulations. In the event of the season of their activity with allergies should carry anti-allergic agents.
Dust, pollen, dust mites
Cause allergic reactions to dust lies in its composition. It includes a variety of microparticles: skin cells of humans and animals, pollen particles cockroaches and dust mites, mold spores, down. They act as allergens. Inhalation of air containing a lot of dust, allergy symptoms may appear.
Pollen allergies are seasonal. When the plants begin to flower, pollen gets into the air. It is carried by the wind over large areas. If inhaled air pollen enters the body and causes an allergic reaction.
Some chemicals can cause allergies. Allergens are detergents and cleaning products, paints and varnishes means to kill insects and parasites, cosmetics and preservatives. Some people have allergic reactions occur even on a cold or active solar rays.
Back to contents
Signs and symptoms
Each person has an allergic reaction, the individual and varied, but they are divided on the form:
Each form is the main symptoms of allergy. Respiratory allergies caused by ingestion of the allergen (dust, pollen, lint, animal dander, and others.) On the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. The main symptoms of this form is itchy nose, excessive separation of mucus from the nasal cavity, frequent sneezing, coughing. Respiratory allergy manifests as allergic rhinitis (runny nose) and atopic asthma. Respiratory allergies comes in contact with bacteria in them.
With the defeat of the gastrointestinal tract occurs allergens allergic enteropathy. This often occurs when the food and drug allergies. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea (diarrhea).
Allergic dermatitis reactions occur when skin manifestation. They occur in surface contact with the allergen and hit them in the body through the gastrointestinal tract. The main forms of skin reactions to allergens are the hives, itchy skin, eczema, scaling, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. This type of reaction caused many allergens: drugs, foods, insect bites, chemicals (paint, cleaners and washing).
After contact with an allergen in the lining of the eye occurs allergic conjunctivitis. In this case the reaction of the body is manifested in the form of itching, burning, redness and tearing eyes. It may develop swelling of the eyelids. These symptoms occur in both eyes at once.
Anaphylaxis is the most dangerous manifestation of allergic reaction. It can be caused by medications, insect bites, as well as in the use of certain food allergens. Fish products and citrus fruits can also cause anaphylactic shock. When such a reaction should contact a doctor immediately. The outcome of anaphylactic shock depends on the timely and adequate treatment.
Back to contents
Treatment and prevention
Since allergies can be controlled. There are several methods to get rid of or prevent allergy symptoms.
Now pharmacies can buy a lot of anti-allergic agents. Sell special antihistamines (drops for eyes and nose, tablets), which block the action of histamine and reduces the symptoms.
In the treatment of allergy immunotherapy is applied. The drug is administered by injection system, reducing sensitivity to certain substances. This method can not cure the allergy, but to many people it helps are easier to carry signs.
It is used as the method of desensitization. In this case, the patient is taking small doses of the drug that causes an allergic reaction. Gradually increasing the dose. Thus the human immune system gets used to the substance and the body stops responding to it.
It should be attentive to the way of life, do not expose yourself to unnecessary harmful substances and do not consume excessive amounts of foods that can cause allergies.