Radishes - the first, and therefore the most popular spring vegetables. Value of radish caused not only by the fact that it has a high content of a number of essential human elements and vitamins, but also the fact that it was one of the first radishes these vitamins brings people, allowing the body to restore supplies after a long winter.
Radishes, or even as this vegetable is colloquially called, radish cultivation is not difficult, was taken, according to legend, Chinese explorer Marco Polo. From Venice, where he had brought, radish has spread throughout Europe, from which came to Russia at the personal order of Peter I. radish is famous not only food, but also healing properties. It perfectly removes toxins from the body and that is important for people who are overweight, breaks down fats.
Radishes opens the season of early spring vegetables. It is also the most precocious of the edible root of the family. But the varieties of radish are so diverse in methods of growing and ripening, it allows for year-round fresh radishes on the table.
European radish is the most precocious - it matures for twenty to twenty-five days. Among the varieties are allocated "Early Red", "Deck", "goddess", "icicles", "Heat", "Dawn", "French breakfast", "Basis" and others. Carrots these varieties weigh 7-20 grams and shape varies from round to elongated. Painting is also very diverse - from white and yellow to pink, red and purple.
Radish contains a large amount of mineral salts, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron, which are easily absorbed by the body. Rich in vitamins and radishes: it contains vitamins, enzymes, ascorbic acid and organic acid.
Radishes - cold-resistant, but very photophilous plant. Radish seeds begin to germinate at 2-3 ° C, and seedlings can withstand even a small freezer - up to -2-3 ° C. Grown plants are not afraid of the short-term freezing up to 4-5 ° below zero. Still, the optimum temperature for radish cultivation is On + 16-18 °.
Growing radishes early start at the end of February - middle of March, when it was sown in the greenhouse. Sowing radish cultivation is carried out under the film cover, start at the end of March. Under normal circumstances, you can begin to sow radishes in mid-April, as soon as the first opportunity to work in the garden. Using the same technology of growing radishes under the film, the crop can be obtained two weeks earlier.
Grow radishes can be on a plot of land, which in the future is for growing tomatoes. Sowing can be up to twenty of May, almost every week. This will give an opportunity not only to gather a good harvest, but also to prepare for the next planting soil culture.
Seeds of best rows to a depth of two centimeters. If you sow radishes deeper, root can not tie. The distance between rows should be 8-10 cm. In this scenario, one square meter can be planted about 15 grams of seeds, which is 1, 5-2 thousand pieces of seeds.
It should be understood that the cultivation of radishes in a period when daylight more than twelve hours, it is undesirable. Despite the fact that the radish has developed rapidly, he often lets the arrow, and the roots are shallow, bitter, woody. Therefore, the optimal timing of sowing radish is early spring or summer of the second half.
To radish seeds good harvest, they should be sown into the soil, previously spilled water. When seedlings appear first true leaf, they need to be thinned out, leaving the distance between the plants two to three centimeters. Many novice gardeners do not work out good crops of radish is due to late thinning.
But experts say that it is better initially to sow one seed, as the thinning could damage the roots of the remaining plants, and it can then grow worse, or even to form an arrow. Sow it needs the calculation of the distance between plants was 5 x 5 cm.
Cultivation and care
The technology of growing radishes and care is very simple - hoeing, weeding, watering. Since this is a very water-loving plant, then water it, especially in dry weather, it should be twice a day - morning and evening. In this case, radish grows thick and juicy. When the plant is not enough moisture, its root, if formed, it grows rough and hollow, and the plant itself immediately lets the arrow.
In cool and cold days to water the radishes should be mild and rare. With the onset of heat to replace watering abundant and frequent. In hot and dry weather watering radishes weekly rate should be 10 l / sq. m.
Especially radishes need of moisture, when the first true leaf, and begins to form a root vegetable. If there is a dry weather, you can not hold radishes without moisture for more than three hours, otherwise it will be wrong in the future to develop. No watering your radishes grow hard and bitter. But excessive watering also leads to some problems. In this case, radishes will start to crack.
As we said above, when growing radishes in a long period of daylight becomes small and not tasty. To avoid this, in the summer to reduce the length of daylight, you can make the screen black film.
For it is expedient to early radishes grown in greenhouses, greenhouses or under film shelters. Sowing is carried out in such terms, which are determined by the construction of greenhouses and weather conditions. Many gardeners are in areas greenhouses, heating of which depends on insolation and sowing in them usually falls on the first or second decade of April. To speed up the start of germination, before sowing the seeds can germinate.
Radishes, in principle, are not picky about soil composition, but it grows particularly well on the rich in organic matter, loose soil with slightly acid or neutral reaction. For the cultivation of this root crop are not suitable cold and heavy clay soils and light sandy land. In order to grow on these soils radishes, they must be added humus per 10 sq. m 20-30 kg.
On a bed where you intend to plant radishes, soil should be prepared in the fall. For this purpose it is necessary to treat an aqueous solution of the drug "Baikal EM-1" by dissolving it in a ratio of 1: 100. The consumption rate of the solution in this case is 2-3 l / sq. m. Radish has a high energy growth therefore requires increased power and responsive to organic fertilizers. Therefore it is good to make the fall in the garden, designed for radishes, compost. By the way, on such a bed, through the activity of microorganisms, snow, spring will come before everything.
Spring treatment should be carried out when the soil warms up not less than 10 ° C. Planting radishes should begin no earlier than seven days after tillage. Radishes can be planted on locations where growing crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peas, potatoes, beans.
You can not make fresh manure into the ground - in this case, the radish is hollow inside. It needs to be fed just rotted organic matter. Please note - if the soil lacks nitrogen that the plant leaves turn yellow, poor radish root forms and tops. The solution is the use of complex fertilizers with high nitrogen content. If the root is not tied, and the leaves look fine, the soil does not have enough potassium. In this case, add potash.
Radishes harvested selectively, as the aging. The first collection of early varieties begin in twenty to twenty-three days after the first shoots and Medium early - about four to four and a half weeks.
Diseases and pests
You can not grow radishes and on acid soils, because there radish affects viral disease - Kila, in which the root of the fruit appear growths. These roots should be avoided, and to destroy.
In late May - early June, when waking up all living creatures, radishes can damage cruciferous cabbage flea beetles and flies. Because of this, on the roots appear small "sores." Pollination leaves radish ash, garlic extract or tobacco dust helps to prevent this scourge.
Cruciferous fleas can destroy crops of radish before emergence. To prevent injuries from them it is necessary to make sure that does not appear in the beds of weeds. In addition, there should be frequent loosening and irrigation of the soil.
Cabbage fly in May-June puts on the stem or on the ground around the stem radish, eggs, of which about a week there larvae which gnaw roots. Against these pests are used to scare away the following mixture: 100 g of tobacco dust, 100 g of wood ash and 1 tsp. Pepper. Make it to the aisle, and then loosen the soil every three or four days at a depth of two to three centimeters.
- Radish beautifully gets along with many cultures. Its seeds in the open field can be sown with the seeds of onions or carrots - while some even grow vegetables, others can already be used in food.
- It is not difficult to grow radishes and on the balcony. There should be cool and damp. For the growth of radish with root vegetables round boxes suitable depth of fifteen centimeters, and for the elongated varieties they should be not less than twenty deep.
- Radish well kept in a refrigerator at a temperature of about zero degrees. Its freshness can be extended if we put radish leaves down, without breaking off the tops, in a bowl with cold water and put in a cool place. Then it is necessary to periodically sprinkle water.