Pruning fruit trees is one of the most important gardening work carried out in early spring. This work does not take much time and effort, and the results it is difficult to overestimate it. Spring pruning of trees - this is not the immediate results, and work for the long term. Therefore, it can not be ignored - do the job will still have only pruning, launched earlier, spending will be much harder.
Improper pruning fruit trees, or lack thereof can not just bad for fruit trees, but did kill him. And the fruits of labor, which had put a lot of time and effort for several years, will be ruined. Some believe that when pruning fruit trees will be enough to remove dead branches or podmerzshie. It is, in fact, very important, but the main goal of the spring pruning of fruit trees, both young and have reached the age of maturity - is the correct formation of the crown of fruit trees.
The formation of the crown of fruit trees
The formation of the crown, it is important to do regularly, starting from the date of planting. Then, from the outset trees will develop properly, and pruning will not cause much trouble. Typically, crown spreading in fruit trees and have a large volume. In this case, the depth of the crown branches grow and laid bare, and much of the foliage and the ovaries, and, respectively, and the fruit is shifted gradually towards the edge of the crown and in its upper part.
If time does not generate the correct size and shape of the crown of the fruit of the tree, and did not direct its growth in the desired direction, then after some time the tree becomes high, powerful and suspended. Such spontaneously growing fruit trees shade the land, and, consequently, hinder the development and growth of nearby plants. The fruits of the trees in such typically shallow, and sometimes are less brightly colored. Although, admittedly, their number can increase significantly.
The increase in the number of fruits is also not good, because most of them still in the immature form of crumbles, and the collection of the harvest becomes more difficult due to the height of the tree. Moreover - lifespan of trees with unformed crown are usually significantly reduced, since they are often more attenuated, and the less resistant to diseases and pests.
Sometimes it happens that the uncut trees with unformed crown of a certain age can be under the weight of increasing the crown just broke in half. Especially during mass fruiting. This may not only lead to death of skeletal branches and complete loss of the tree. Moreover, gradually, over time caring for trees such a hard and delivers serious trouble gardeners.
It becomes difficult to spray the crown of the tree, because the process branches growing in all directions, is practically impossible. Partial processing also does not provide necessary efficiencies. Natural growing trees are also difficult to reap the harvest. This is only possible with the use of various devices and high staircases. But even in these cases, part of the crop remains on the tree.
In order to remove these benefits, you need to shake the tree. As a result, the yield is reduced, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively, and the harvest turns into a heavy and tedious job. In addition, knocking fruit can inadvertently cause substantial damage to the tree.
Receptions pruning orchard trees
Pruning fruit trees involves a whole system of techniques to control their growth. In practice, use two receiving pruning fruit trees:
- decimation - clipping branches at its place of exit from the main stem or branch of a larger
- shortening or trimming - in this case, cut a certain part of the branch
Total cut only unnecessary branches, silencing the crown, as well as underdeveloped, rubbing intertwined, growing up or down, as well as broken and sick. Shortening is a challenging technique, as strengthens the development of the tree. Pruning trees, fruit and berry, is usually used for the initial formation of the crown of a young tree.
Woo pruning and branching in the right place. Very often it is used for the laying of a new tier of branches. With pruning fruit trees enhance fouling branches. In addition, so warn wading in fruit trees.
Shortening is used to change the direction of the growth of branches. In adult trees with strong growth pruning helps to limit the size of the crown and keep it within the desired volume. Shorten shoots to aging fruit trees leads to the rejuvenation of the tree, enhance its growth and formation of the young shoots. Trimming apply in the case of crown freezing in the winter, to restore it.
Keep in mind that you can not use pruning of fruit trees of the varieties that are characterized by strong and very strong ability to sprout and probudimosti kidneys, because it causes a thickening of the crown of fruit trees. At the optimal length of the main branches and the growth of the conductor (the main trunk) is not necessary to perform trimming. This can lead to negative consequences, such as the reduction of yield because fructification occurs mainly at the ends of the young shoots.
How is the pruning of trees
At least one third of the branches pruned shortening called weak, a third to a half - the average, and more than half - strong. Sections were made on the kidney, which is located on the outer side of the branch. Strong branches are cut at the shortening of the side branch, oriented in the right direction (trimming translation). If branch diameter is less than three centimeters, then make cuts shears, the more thick branches cut saw.
When pruning fruit trees pruning shears, it should be sent across the fabric straight out and turns. The cut is made so that it had to end slightly above the top of the kidneys. Cutting a branch entirely, to do the cut at the base of the ring influx. Very large branches are removed parts. Please outline the place saw cut, and then at a distance of ten to thirty centimeters of it (depending on the width and length of the branches) do gash below. We need to cut until the saw is not jammed. After that it is necessary to pull back three to five centimeters, and make a second gash above. Then at this point the branch breaks off. Once the branch is removed from the crown should be drunk in the right place at the remaining stump. And it should be done carefully to avoid scuffing turned crust.
Spili less than one - half centimeters can not cover up or paint over. In young trees themselves well overgrown, and they are old, mostly at the periphery of the crown, which is no danger even if weak and slow overgrowth. Large wounds, especially on the main skeletogenous branches and the trunk, you must first clean up, to cut teaser crust, then carefully paint them or cover up. You can paint over garden pitch wounds and paint - the paint on the basis of any kind of varnish. Apply protection on the "wound" should be no later than two hours after the cutoff. If the wound has not healed, and paint or plaster worn, they must be applied again.
There are different systems of formation of the crown of fruit trees, among which the most common is rarefied bunk krona. In this case, at the bottom tier of making two close or adjacent skeletal branches, and the third is left at a distance of fifteen to thirty centimeters. Acceptable to do tier and three branches. The remaining branches are placed around the trunk of the single or create a second tier of the two branches and one or two have one.
The distance between the tiers in the neutral zone for the varieties with a broad crown set to 0, 6-0, 8 m, and for varieties with a raised crown - 0, 8-1m. As scaffold branches are selected those which are evenly spaced around the circumference of crown angle of 45-70 ° to the main wellbore.
The optimum angle of divergence between the skeletal branches are approximately 120 °. Skeletal branches of 2nd order should lay only three lower branches. Moreover, there should be at each branch no more than two. The branches of the second order form as much and feather. The first branch in the main branches should be located more than 0, 5-0, 6 m from their base. This method of crown formation makes it easy to achieve the desired result and get a long and good fruit-bearing trees.
According to those people, whose main hobby is gardening, pruning fruit trees should be carried out before bud break. This should focus on the specific weather conditions. But pruning usually do no later than mid-April. If we talk about the priority of trimming, the first to be processed berry bushes, because the buds begin to swell on them very early, and the leaves hatch almost immediately after the snow melts. Then cut off the young and fruit trees - pear and apple trees, well, and then stone fruit crops - cherries, cherry, plum and so on.