Azalea or rhododendron - nizkostvolnoe is a plant that is a shrub with bright colors and spreading crown. Azaleas are grown in the garden environment, and in the room. Today it is known about 1000 kinds of rhododendrons that grow in China and India, as well as in the Caucasus, in Siberia and the southern United States. In this article we'll show you how to properly care for this plant and what features of its content.
The name "Azalea" is deprecated - plants of this species properly called rhododendrons, as stated above. However, beautiful, sophisticated name Azalea so we caught that many suppliers colors deliberately indicate the packages this name. I agree that it sounds nice, especially when it comes to such a comely flower.
Rhode azaleas is quite extensive. It includes species such as evergreen, deciduous and polulistopadnye, different from each other as a form of leaves and flowers. They may have a different color ampelnye or pyramidal shape. Distinguished and care for each of the species. "Parents" today considered azaleas Rhododendron Rhododendron Sims and Japanese.
Rhododendrons: flower shape
Azalea flowers have both stamens and pistils so in one flower and pollination occurs by insects. The shape distinguish four basic types of flowers, each of which has several subtypes: plain, terry and terry view from "a flower in bloom." Simple flowers usually have five petals and the same number of stamens. Terry may have a different number of petals, which appear directly from the stamens. "Flower in flower" a simple form can have 10-12 petals formed from the cup. But double "flowers in the flower" are altogether more than 30 petals.
In nature, azaleas can be found in Asia and North America as well as in Europe. In Japan the culture of breeding azaleas lasts is not the first millennium. But in Europe and the United States recently got azalea as a house plant. Somewhere in the early 20th century rhododendrons became popular as a garden shrub. While almost all the botanical gardens were packed with both species and hybrid azaleas. Since then began an active breeding azaleas in the US, UK and Germany.
In addition, the azaleas are divided into three groups: Indian, Japanese and North American. Indian rhododendron - this plant is home grown in the room. Japanese azaleas - a decorative look, designed for the garden. Typically, this shrub with pink or lilac, white or reddish-orange flowers. Maybe so, that one bush flowers are all of the above colors. But North American azaleas - are 16 species of rhododendron all kinds of painting, as well as their hybrids deciduous type.
Terms of care for azaleas
Now more about how to care for azalea room. As is the case with the cultivation of other colors, you need to pay attention to the temperature and lighting, humidity and especially watering and feeding, breeding, transplantation and cutting plants. But first things first:
In summer, when the temperature readings reach record highs, azalea is better to remove it in a cool place. For example, the floor. This is the beginning basic care. In winter, rhododendrons also need to be relatively cool temperatures up to 15 degrees. In the fall, during the laying of flower buds, try to keep the temperature at around 7-8 degrees, and after a couple of months to promote 15. Please note that all varieties of azaleas start to bloom at different periods of the year, but to the kidneys has occurred tab, make sure need a cool temperature.
Can not proper care and without proper lighting. Azaleas need bright light, but in any case not in direct sunlight. Suitably, the sun fell on the plant in the early morning or late afternoon - but not during the day. It is best to grow rhododendrons on the east or north-west window, undesirable - on the north. If the flower growing in the apartment on the south or west side, it is sure to create a comfortable environment - let there be a shadow.
Note that the soil in the pot was always wet. For irrigation use only soft water. Peresushivaya, azalea flowers lose their decorative effect, the brightness, and the leaves begin to fall. This is just a plant that does not tolerate excessive dampness or strong peresushki. Overflow immediately rot the roots, and if the drying takes a long time, the azalea and all can be lost quickly.
In order to avoid overdrying the soil, especially in summer, cover soil moss. It can be as sphagnum moss and wood. Alternatively, you can sprinkle gravel, soil crumbs. However, pay attention to the fact that at the bottom of the pot there is enough drainage, and the pot has holes. It is necessary to get rid of excess fluid.
Bedroom home azalea needs a good humidity. Spray it previously defended better - boiled water. During flowering, use a fine spray to spryskivaniya - this will prevent the emergence of large spots on the foliage. To create a comfortable humidity you can also put the pots of azaleas on special pallets, stacked wet pebbles or moss same.
Fertilizing azaleas conducted in the period from April to September. If the room has good lighting, you can fertilize the plant and in other seasons. Typically, feed flower once every three weeks, using special fertilizer designed for rhododendrons. In principle, you can use other feeding for decorative and flowering plants. The main thing that was not alkaline.
Proper care includes periodic cutting azaleas. Immediately after flowering is necessary to shorten the last year, and the stretched-out or heavily regrown shoots. Besides punctured branches and leaves weak, sickly gains. You can rejuvenate old copies of the short cutting and subsequent planting in their soil during the summer period.
Now for the transplant. The most suitable soil for azaleas considered softwood land, the use of which is possible without special preparation. Its pH level is 4, 5-6, 0 - is quite normal. If you own the land for the plant are typing, it is best to take the soil from the mixed undergrowth, that is, where grow pine and birch. Suitable and peat land.
Rhododendrons do not carry heavy loam and soil from the places where oaks grow. Azaleas have shallow root system, so do not use too deep pots. They must be rather wide, 2-3 cm in height. Consider the level of drainage. It is advisable to add the soil a little pine bark or coco substrate.
How is the reproduction? As a rule, rhododendrons propagated by cuttings, which are cut off right after flowering. Cuttings taken lightly brown, with a thin crust, in any case, not green. They are rooted in the ground, using peat mixed with sand or a simple ground sheet. Then take cuttings removed from the lower leaves, leaving a few leaves on top.
You can consider the question in advance, withstand cutting 16-18 hours in a special solution of IAA (temperature - 22 degrees). Such a cutting rooted in the ground at a temperature of 23-24 degrees, while the outside humidity should be 70%. Do not forget that the plant should be watered periodically to stalk firmly rooted.
What are the difficulties of growing azaleas?
Azalea, like any other plant, has some difficulties in the process of growing. For example, a small flowering period. This may occur when the flower is too hot or too dry air. Place the pot azalea away from the battery, by spraying the leaves daily. By the way, the reason for the short flowering can be an excess of bright sunlight or lack of moisture.
Another problem that you may encounter - alkalization of the soil, as well as concomitant excessive moisture and hard water. How is it shown? The poor and the weak growth of budding. Sometimes a bloom can be omitted altogether. The reason for these problems - planting in unsuitable soil or improper care initially.
Always provide rhododendrons cool, comfortable and humid atmosphere. Flower pots can be placed between the frames of windows even - there is a little cooler; However, make sure that the temperature does not fall lower than 8 degrees (in the active budding). During flowering temperature should be 13 degrees on average.
Rhododendrons providing comprehensive care, and make sure that the plant is not affected by pests, the main of which - is the scale insects, Coccidae, spider mites and mealybugs. The first two pests can be identified by the brown patches, located on the leaves and stems. In addition, the leaves may lose color and dry, sometimes even fall. Victims and flowers. How to deal with the scale insects? It is better to use mechanical cleaning by wiping the leaves with soapy sponge soft. Then pour the soil in the pot or insecticide konfidor Aktar. If these preparations have use aktellik solution (0, 15%, 1-2 ml of water).
Spider mite can manifest themselves when too dry air. On the stems directly into the interstices of the web may occur, which will be heavily marked with a serious defeat. You may notice a small puncture in the gaps. Be sure to wipe the sponge plant or wash it under warm soft water. In order to get rid of pests, spray azaleas acaricide. Do not forget about maintaining optimal humidity.
Small scale insects, white furry pests adversely affect the leaves, flowers and shoots. As a rule, they accumulate in the roots and in the interstices. You can see the curvature of the leaves, their drying. Fight scale insects should be the same as with the spider mites, do not forget to water the soil or konfidor Aktar.
Actually, it has all the basic rules that should stick to growing azaleas. By providing the plant with proper care and attention, you can grow a gorgeous exotic flower, which will take its rightful place in your flower garden and your home will impress with their stunning views.