- Principles of classification of feelings
- The aesthetic feeling
- Ethical or moral feelings
- Intelligent feelings
A person's feelings are varied and depend on our interaction with the existing reality. A huge number of emotions we have experienced is due to the fact that, similar in nature, they differ in the degree of intensity of emotions and expressive color shades. The variety of feelings leads to persistent attempts to organize and classify them. It is necessary to mention the frequently repeated attempts to group feelings in terms of tone and intensity of emotional experiences, as well as the nature of man's relationship to the object of the senses. It is a mild elation, resentment, hatred, sorrow, sadness, shame, admiration, sympathy, love, and so on.
This classification makes it possible to produce some systematization of the human senses. But it is essentially incomplete. In it there is a distraction from the specific content that is of great importance for the characterization of the senses. For example, very different from each other due to the joy of the victory of your favorite football team and the joy of meeting with acquaintances or related to listening music. It is also different in emotional coloring certain types of anxiety: the fate of the hero of the novel or movie, while riding on a boat in a strong wind caused by the opinion of the people in the commission of us some action and so on. Distraction from the specific content of the senses, has a place to be in such a classification, led to the creation of groups that match their content side.
Principles of classification of feelings
First of all, one should proceed from the principle of materialistic psychology. He says that the human psyche is a reflection of their objective reality that exists independently of him. Therefore, the question can be put this way: how is reflected in the individual sense the reality in which he lives, works with which he is associated in many ways?
The reality is understood by us in the broadest sense. This is - nature, human society on individuals, social institutions (the state, the family, and so on), the process and the products of human labor, performing in various forms, morality and so on. In the individual human consciousness reflected the traits of social consciousness, which are inherent in a given society, the era with its terms of visions of the world, life, rules and norms of behavior and relationships between people.
The reality in its concrete manifestations of each person perceives, guided by public opinion of his time. We all live in this reality and act according to the needs to develop in us, estimates, looking at things and phenomena, notions of moral and beautiful, acquired in the course of our life in society. This reality is reflected in the individual consciousness of each individual, including those in the emotional sphere.
Based on this, the feelings are different: firstly, on the subject of reality to which they are directed (real, imaginary, present, past, and so on, has certain properties and qualities from the point of view of social practice); secondly, in nature and content. Under the direction of content should imply a sense, the nature of the emotional relationship to the object (the object is accepted or rejected feelings, and so on) and features appearing with the subjective state. Contact person with reality, serving in his life and work in complex combinations of diverse, it does to some extent conditioned the classification of the senses, which can be set.
However, some types of sense should be allocated. And above all, it is those that are reasonably called higher feelings: moral, aesthetic, intellectual. They are associated with perception and awareness about the diverse phenomena of social life and culture. Emotional man's attitude, manifested in these experiences may be distributed on a relatively simple and the most complex forms of relationships, social institutions, and the creation of culture. These kinds of emotions and feelings have a number of unique features.
First, they developed their own forms may reach high degree of generality. Secondly, that is very important, they are always associated with a more or less distinct awareness of social norms related to one or the other side of reality. These higher sense, because in them to a certain extent revealed the attitude of the whole person to the world and to life, sometimes called worldview feelings. In particular the experience of the person relating to the complex phenomena of reality, they can act as a cohesive complex and in various combinations, but for a more precise definition of their characteristics is to consider them separately.
The aesthetic feeling
Under this kind of sense refers to those human emotions and sensations that he experiences, looking at the beauty or, conversely, its absence - ugliness. The object of perception in this case, can be a work of art (music, sculpture, poetry, prose, painting and so on), a variety of natural phenomena, as well as the people themselves, their actions and deeds.
Indeed, many causes of human aesthetic pleasure: the beauty of living landscapes, reading books and poems, listening to music. We enjoy buy clothes created by the interior, modern furniture, and even a new kitchen utensils. The same applies to acts committed by people around us, because we assess them in terms of the generally accepted moral norms that exist in society.
I must say that the aesthetic types of feelings can be both contemplative and active. In the first case this is due to the simple observation of the objects that make up the reality of man, in the second embodiment, such emotions are capable of imparting the aesthetic features of our actions. Therefore, an individual characteristic enjoy and in the process, as he sings or dances. Particularly important is the role of aesthetic experience for the creative mind, seeking to convey their perception of the world through they create works of art, literature, painting and much more.
More specifically about this form of human emotions, in his submission for the variety of sensations is to provide some of the most important. These experiences are familiar to any person, without them it is impossible to imagine a full spiritual life of every individual and society as a whole. Thus, the most important senses this species are as follows.
It is based on the feeling of pleasure which one experiences at the moment of perception of the colors, shapes, sounds and other features of objects or phenomena. It is this feeling, we can choose some other shades of color, highlight certain individual notes, admiring especially liked the architectural elements. This is the most simple form of aesthetic pleasure. As for his more complex manifestations, in this case it will not for individual parts and their combinations on the perception of the whole object or phenomenon.
For example, if we imagine the image of a thoroughbred racehorse, then the person can like it all - color, rock, rushing, and even haughty neighing. Because all of these inherent characteristics of the horse are in harmony with each other and create a holistic complete image. If we talk about the sounds, the aesthetic pleasure we get from consonance, dissonance and here is the opposite emotion. The same applies to motions, because they like the rhythm of more than no.
The sense of beauty
This feeling is characteristic of human experience at a time when he perceives see and feel the beauty of nature and people. Such feelings and emotions cause us beautiful flowers, graceful animals, beautiful landscapes, and so on. We experience a sense of beauty and when the noble deeds of a man forced to think about the breadth of his soul and the right attitudes.
It must be said that the beauty of phenomena and objects exist by itself and does not depend on whether it takes our minds. It combines all the parts that make up a single whole. For example, the human form - it is not just the outline of the figure. We see every facial features, eye color, skin and hair, the harmony and the balance figure, voice and so on.
And, most importantly, the beauty can not consist only of purely external factors. Form must comply content. It often happens that in the face of the person is noticeable asymmetry and it is far from the classical canons, but it is so perfectly matches the soul and clearly expresses the character of what we perceive as a truly excellent.
Sense perception tragic
These emotions are associated with strong emotional experiences. For example, a particularly successful acting in the creation of a specific human form is able to induce in us a chain of tragic feelings, compassion, anger, sympathy. These sensations ennoble people make you think about the high, giving a special depth of thought and subtlety of perception.
The strength of the affective state has some sort of a cleansing effect on man. Watching the development of particularly dramatic scene in the theater, cinema or reading a book, we in the growing feeling ever closer to the denouement. And when it finally comes, the man embraces a storm of emotions and feelings, after which he finds comfort and peace. But to do the work itself to be truly beautiful and extremely impressive.
These emotions, perhaps, be called the most controversial of all kinds of aesthetic feelings. Indeed, sometimes we laugh at things quite polar, over what seemed to be likely to cause tears. But so constituted man - allegedly the great philosophers, it consists of continuous controversy. We laugh at all sorts of inconsistencies: for example, high fat man driving a tiny car, three year old little girl in her mother's shoes' heels "and so on.
As laughter through tears, it often happens to people prone to reflection. They usually expect a lot from reality, tend to idealize the world around us and want to see a higher meaning where there is none. And when it turns out that the promising form hide under a vacuum, we laugh, sometimes over a well. And it's very good quality, which it develops in us a sense of common humor, because it allows you to think about the imperfection of the world and devote their efforts to somehow influence it. For example, all the familiar illustrations from magazines, deriding those or other human vices (smoking, alcoholism, adultery, laziness, greed, and so forth) are forced to fight with them in their own reality.
Ethical or moral feelings
These kinds of feelings are characterized by feelings that a person experiences in their relationships with others, with society as well as in the implementation of certain obligations imposed by society. There are meaningful moral values and concepts of the individual - they are formed in each of us the face of morality and ethics. For what is, for example, a conscience? It is a measure of responsibility for this or that act of man to society.
The moral sentiments can be attributed all those emotions that we experience in the process of communication with the people: the trust, genuine location, affection, friendship, love. Do not forget about the sense of duty, national pride and love for the motherland, solidarity and so on. The role of this kind of feeling is very great, because the person is not only important to be able to dissolve in the crowd, that is, to defend their own "I", but in time to consolidate with their own kind, finding the moral "we."
It is associated with a sense of humanity, our love for the motherland, to the people, patriotism and national identity. In this case, it is running the whole system of attitudes a person employed all his moral standards and values. They are expressed in empathy aimed at the communication, help, mutual aid. It is due to Humanity, we respect the rights and freedoms of other people, we try not to harm their honor and dignity not to offend.
A sense of honor and dignity
This type of high emotions tend to determine the relationship of man to himself and how he is perceived by others. In simple words, the honor - a recognition of the other people of your achievements. It is these feelings cause in us the desire to create a good reputation, a certain level of prestige, good name among his own kind.
Dignity - a public recognition of the rights of a person to respect and independence from the social environment. But we do need to be aware of all this, to evaluate their actions in terms of morality and reject what might humiliate or offend us. An unbiased assessment of the man and his actions towards other people is still among the definitions of conscience. The higher our moral and ethical self-awareness, the responsibility and conscientious we are doing.
Feelings of guilt and shame
These are not very pleasant emotions also belong to the moral sense, shaping the image of any normal person. They are a kind of guards, which protect ourselves from the harmful actions of our vices. Wine is more mature emotion - it is expressed brighter than shame. Guilt occurs when a person commits anything that runs counter to his moral convictions and principles. Such feelings do not allow us to go beyond the life in society.
As for shame, it is often confused with the guilt. However, this is a different feeling. Common symptoms are discomfort shame, confusion, regret, experienced man in the case, if it does not comply with other people. In this case, it waits for contempt or ridicule. So it feels inexperienced stripper experiencing debut performance on stage in the men's club. After all, she is afraid to deceive the expectations of the crowd and feel ashamed of their nakedness and helplessness.
And finally, it's time to talk about the third form of high human feelings - an intellectual. Their basis is any cognitive activity, carried out by us at the time of study, work and creative research in science or the arts. It is responsible for feelings of intelligent search for truth, that is the only correct answer to many important human issues.
There is an inextricable link between the processes of knowledge and intellectual emotions. The first is impossible without the latter. The mental activity of man, which arises in the course of research work will bring tangible results only if it is really interested in the subject of his study. And those of us who are studying or working out of sheer necessity, often do not succeed in this and disappointed.
A sense of wonder
This sensation occurs when a person meets with something new and unknown. We were surprised by the extraordinary events of which we can only guess. A successful process of cognition in general is impossible without this emotion with its cheerful tint. Surprise, which is caused by a particular surprise, causes a person to pay attention to him an unknown object or phenomenon, thereby encouraging all to learn new facets in the world.
A sense of doubt
Almost any person experiences it, if the path to the truth is faced with contradictions. That question prompts us to look for new evidence of innocence and loyalty to the views and theories, test them thoroughly and only then to release to the world. Without these emotions is difficult to imagine at least one scientific discovery, and indeed of human life in all its manifestations.
The feeling of vagueness or clarity of thought