Atopic asthma - a very common disease. In spite of the modern approaches to the detection and treatment of asthma, the number of patients continues to grow steadily. To date, more than 150 million people worldwide suffer from this disease. Disease is especially severe in children and the elderly.
In asthma, it is not hard to guess, greatly disrupted bronchus. In most cases the disease is allergic in nature. Even in the absence of clinical inflammation of the bronchial mucosa observed. In the early stages of the patient may be unaware of the presence of asthma, since attacks are rare, do not last long and go away on their own. However, if left untreated the disease becomes more severe.
The disease is quite specific and, therefore, easily recognizable symptoms. Of course, the degree of severity depend on what form of a human patient with bronchial asthma. But the overall picture remains unchanged always:
When physical activity occurs shortness of breath, which quickly passes after taking bronchodilators.
Sudden shortness of breath
Difficulties during exhalation
Night cough, sleep disorders.
SARS illness lasts a long time (over 10 days). The patient feels that cough "sinks deeper"
The main difference between asthma from other similar diseases - difficulty in exhaling and not during inspiration.
Naturally, the more severe asthma, the more impressed the bronchi, the symptoms of Jabneh and more attacks.
When there is an aggravation of swelling of the lungs. This is due to airway narrowing. During the attack the patient can not breathe the air. For breathing patient uses the muscles of the neck, shoulders and torso. To facilitate breathing, a person is forced to sit, leaning forward and resting his hands on his knees. The patient exhales so little air that whistle virtually inaudible. After an attack of thick phlegm accumulated in the bronchi, waste in the form clots.
After a prolonged attack may occur asthmatic status, which is characterized by oxygen deprivation and posinenie.Prodolzhitelnost exacerbations may be different - from several minutes to several hours. Shortness of breath may occur in the period between attacks.
The degree of asthma
Mild - attacks are rare (about 1-2 times a month) and do not last long. Improvement can go after the use of drugs, or by itself. Outside attacks the patient feels is normal.
The average form - attacks more severe, accompanied by suffocation, and failures in the circulatory system. Required regular intake of inhaled bronhospazmolitikov.
attacks can be life-threatening, requiring emergency medical intervention. Exacerbations occur frequently - at least 2-3 times a week. Sometimes - every day. Between attacks the patient has shortness of breath.
Also released hay fever - Seasonal asthma, which is associated with an allergy to pollen of flowering plants.
Causes of asthma
Asthma may be infectious or allergic nature. In young children, the disease most often occurs due to frequent SARS. Adolescents cause of asthma may be associated with exposure to indoor allergens. Progression of the disease in adults is most often associated with professional activities.
Also at risk:
Smokers and passive smokers;
Residents industrial regions and major cities;
People leading an unhealthy lifestyle;
Residents of the regions with cold and humid climate.
Predisposition to asthma is inherited. If one parent is sick, the risk of developing the disease doubles a child. If both parents - even greater risk in half.
Also plays a role of a disease of the nervous system imbalance and processes slizeobrazovaniya. Typically, before the advent of asthma patients have inflammation and hypertrophy of the mucosa of the respiratory tract and excessive accumulation of mucus.
Indirect prichiny- uncontrolled and unjustified medications for the treatment of SARS. Such measures can lead to allergies and failure of the immune system.
Preservatives, stabilizers, dyes, thickeners and so forth. Constituents of foods.
Medications - especially beta-blockers and drugs causing bronchial allergy (eg, aspirin).
Household allergens (mold spores, animal waste, dust mites and cockroaches, pollen, tobacco smoke, household chemicals, and so forth.).
Severe or prolonged stress.
The frosty air.
To reduce the likelihood of relapse, remember all the circumstances in which you place the attacks. It is advisable to write them down. Also consult pulmanologii and allergist. Once you know the causes of attacks, you can easily avoid them.
For the prevention of asthma experts recommend:
Swimming lessons, physical education;
Walks in the open air;
Early treatment of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract;
Reducing exposure to smoke, gas and strong allergens.
Persons who have been diagnosed predastmy status, must be careful. The risk also includes people who have been diagnosed sensitization, allergies, and family members of patients with asthma. In these cases, it is desirable to take special medication as a preventive measure. Also sometimes spend desensitization.
The following tips will help reduce the number and intensity of relapses in patients with asthma:
Take food hypoallergenic products that contain a minimum number of synthetic substances.
Be sure to inform doctors about all your existing disease, study the instructions carefully and take drugs and dietary supplements only after consulting with your doctor.
Try not to keep the home carpets, furs and stuffed toys.
Books are stored in closed cabinets.
The house should always be kept clean. There should be no accumulation of dust. Wet cleaning should be performed at least once a week, without the participation of the patient.
Use Organic products for cleaning. Habitual chemicals can release vapors that can cause allergies, and later, after cleaning.
With careful use aromatic oils, deodorants and air fresheners.
Take home all flowering plants.
Avoid excessive exercise.
Try not to stay in rooms with high humidity.
If possible, avoid sudden temperature changes.
Bedding should be washed at least once a week. Washing should take place at a temperature of 60C.
Put on a dust-proof mattress and pillow covers.
The definition of the diagnosis begins with anamnesis and examination of the patient. In many cases, these measures allow a preliminary diagnosis. When predastmy patient may complain of a dry cough that occurs at night or in the morning. This is due to the fact that in approximately 3-4 hours night rises bronchial musculature tonus. At an early stage the cough is not accompanied by attacks of breathlessness. When you listen to can be found scattered dry wheezing.
To reveal hidden bronchospasm used beta-agonists. Measure the volume of exhaled air before applying medication relaxes the muscles of the bronchi, and after. If there is a significant difference, the doctor can judge the presence of bronchospasm.
For later stages of the disease characterized by asthma, which can occur spontaneously or due to the effects of provoking factors. Before the aggravation of the patient can feel individual symptoms - runny nose, itching, sore throat, and others. Then progressing difficulty breathing. First, there is a feeling of tightness in the chest and dry kashel.Dalee - wheezing, which can be of a sound of varying heights. Then the patient becomes difficult to breathe, because It accumulates in the lungs a lot of air.
When you attack the jugular veins swell considerably during inhalation and exhalation to subside. While rapping chest hear "box" sound. The lower boundary of the lungs inactive omitted. When listening discernible wheeze different height and intensity.
The degree of control
With proper treatment, asthma can be controlled, thus preventing the development of disease and poor health of the patient.
clinical picture of asthma absent special analyzes almost normal. When this treatment is applied.
Night asthma no more than twice a month.
Daily bouts of short-term and last for less than 1 time per week.
There is no need to use the inhaler with beta2-agonists
Partially-controlled - there are not very clear signs of the disease, the therapy control.
Uncontrolled - obvious signs of disease that develop even with therapy. Treatment should be mandatory. Periodically be changed.
Since asthma - a chronic disease that is treated at home, the patient is important to learn self-control. This will allow to properly evaluate their condition and adjust therapy.
Buy a portable peak flow meter, which enables you to determine the maximum flow rate of the exhaled air. Index of SMEs changed only when the inner diameter of the bronchi. Therefore, the method plays an important role in prevention. The measurements should be carried out every day after a night of sleep, before the use of medicines. The result should be entered into the diary.
A reading above 70% of the norm is the right treatment, good control and the absence of symptoms.
If the value in the limit of 50-70%, which means that treatment needs to be improved, since there are indications for the development of the disease. In this case, you need to see a doctor to adjust treatment.
If less than 50%, and a high risk of exacerbation of asthma. Need urgent correction of therapy and measures to prevent the attack. Methods of self-control should be discussed with your doctor to clarify what to do in dangerous readings.
Treatment of asthma
The main goals of treatment:
Identifying the causes of disease (infectious or allergic)
Eliminating the source of inflammation
Eliminating chronic symptoms, long-term remission
The intensity of the treatment depends on the severity of the disease. The course shall be appointed only after a complete examination and adjusted periodically.
Doctors have successfully used a stepped approach to treatment. Each patient is offered an individual plan that changed and supplemented over time.
If the disease becomes more severe, the patient is being treated according to the higher stage of the plan. If within three months of asthma is mild, with the relief of symptoms, the patient uses the lower level plan.
For the treatment used hormones - corticosteroids.
Preferably inhalants because they do not cause serious side effects, act directly on the respiratory tract and exert a strong effect.
Most commonly prescribed courses of aldetsin, bekotid, Beklazona, budesonide, Pulmicort, Ingakorta, INTA or Tayleda. Medications taken to relieve inflammation. During exacerbation of the disease subject to additional drugs.
During an exacerbation:
Whenever possible, protect the patient from exposure to the allergen;
Unbuttoned clothes, open to incoming fresh air;
Apply a designated drug bronchospasmolytic effect (Flomax, berotek salbutamol) via a nebulizer or by using a metered dose inhaler. 1-2 doses with an interval of 2 minutes, or according to doctor's appointments.
In the absence of contraindications, you can take one tablet of aminophylline
In the absence of the effect of repeated inhalation twenty minutes.
In case of heavy choking nagging call "ambulance."
Asthma and Pregnancy
Bronchial asthma - a common lung disease in pregnant women, which may occur before or during the pregnancy I trimester. The main thing is not to give up drugs or stop treatment for all nine months. If you follow all recommendations of your doctor probably will not be any complications.
When planning pregnancy, women who know about the disease, should consult with your doctor what medicines you can take during pregnancy and what you can not, buy a tonometer to always monitor your blood pressure. Doctors say that women with asthma more often increases the pressure, even if they are pre-pregnancy against this phenomenon never encountered.
In cases of acute disease should consult a doctor immediately. Many women ignore the advice of experts, because it does not rely on modern methods of treatment. And a very good reason - in a similar situation self can cause irreparable harm. And not only the expectant mother, but her baby.
There are many myths about asthma, it's not so long ago, there were no drugs, controlling this disease. Many still believe that asthma - a debilitating disease in which it is impossible to have children.
With proper and timely treatment can completely eliminate the symptoms of asthma. Therefore, you should not self-medicate. Seek qualified help. Lots of what you can achieve on their own - a very short-term improvements, after which the situation will worsen. Moreover - in the early stages it is quite possible to achieve stable improvement.
And if you miss this very stage, engaged in self-treatment, and will be taken to the doctor only when it becomes absolutely bad - the fight against the disease is long, painful and not always obviously victory will be yours.
We recommend that read: Symptoms of asthma in adults