The human body is very complex mechanism, similar to the successful operation is very important that all, without exception, his organs and systems healthy. But, unfortunately, the human body is very vulnerable - there is a huge number of different diseases and disorders. And very often it is impossible to predict which side waiting for trouble.
In this article we will talk about the phenomenon of pulmonary edema, the effects of which are extremely heavy. And that the worst is still to determine the cause always provoke pulmonary edema in each case, you can not even the most experienced doctors. However, a certain tendency can also keep track of all.
What is pulmonary edema, and what are its symptoms?
As is known, using the human lung is supplied to him vital oxygen. In the same case in the light, for whatever reasons, there will be a surplus of blood pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is greatly enhanced. As an inevitable consequence, the liquid penetrates into the alveoli, thereby breaking the normal process of gas exchange.
On why this can happen, we'll talk later. And now let's see, how do you determine that a person is developed pulmonary edema, and not any other lung pathology. Timely diagnosis is very, very important, because in such cases the expense is not even on the clock, and for a minute. And it is very important to as quickly as possible to recognize the problem and cause a brigade of "first aid".
Although, in fairness, it should be noted that acute pulmonary edema develops not in all cases. Around 50% have the slow progression of pulmonary edema - in this case the prognosis is more favorable, as the doctors more time to help a sick person. So:
Symptoms of pulmonary edema is slowly emerging:
In the case of pulmonary edema develops gradually, people are increasingly going to celebrate at the appearance of shortness of breath. And the first time will only appear shortness of breath during exercise, but over time the level of physical activity that can lead to shortness of breath, will decline. In the severe stages of shortness of breath will torment a man, even in a state of complete physical rest.
In addition, when pulmonary edema in human patients in almost all cases, doctors say tachypnea. This term is called shortness of breath, for no apparent reason. Moreover, rapid breathing develops synchronously with shortness of breath. At first it appears during exercise, then at rest. This phenomenon is by no means unacceptable disregard as shortness of breath can indicate a variety of other diseases. And with pulmonary edema shortness of breath occurs only at a fairly advanced stage.
Very often sick people complain of dizzy spells, the frequency of which increases with the development of edema. In addition, the overall picture is complemented by the disease fatigue, drowsiness, deterioration of general well-being. All of these symptoms should alert the sick person and his family. At the first sign you must immediately seek medical help.
When the inspection and examination of the sick person, doctors often detect hypoxia - low oxygen content in the blood. And as a consequence, very quickly develops anoxia - which is why many suffer internal organs and systems. Therefore, you may experience a variety of disease - it is to predict all of them is simply unrealistic.
When listening to the lungs of the patient doctor with a stethoscope is often heard unusual sounds - gurgling and wheezing. They arise just because of the fact that in the alveoli of the lungs of the sick person accumulates an excessive amount of liquid. Although, of course, the severity of the symptoms depends on the stage of the disease.
Symptoms of acute pulmonary edema:
In the case of pulmonary edema in a human lightning develops, more and more symptoms are manifested differently. Typically, in most cases, pulmonary edema develops during the night when the person is asleep. Suddenly woke up, the person feels a strong suffocation. The patient looks very worried - he sits in bed, she begins to breathe very heavily, panting. A few minutes later there hacking whooping cough. The first few minutes of the patient to cough sputum normal consistency, but the progression of edema, it is becoming more and more liquid, turning almost into the water.
Breathe sick person becomes more and more difficult - it involves the process has even auxiliary respiratory muscles. The lower boundary of the lungs almost all the time the attack is at the lowest point as with a deep breath. If at this moment to listen to a patient with a stethoscope, you can hear the strongest wheezing, whistling and gurgling sounds. Although in severe cases for this and do not need a stethoscope - just lean over the sick man of the post.
Blood pressure is thus often is either in the normal range, or on the contrary, increased. Especially in those cases where it is elevated blood pressure is the primary cause of pulmonary edema. This also occurs, albeit rarely. However, this does not apply venous pressure - it is always dropped.
Face pale sick person appears pronounced cyanosis. Very often acts sticky cold sweat. The emotional state of the patient is also very changed man - he is experiencing is not just the excitement, and a real panic and fear of death. This fear in any case can not be ignored - it only exacerbates the severity of the attack. It is necessary to try to calm the sick person, to inspire his confidence in the successful outcome.
The duration of an attack - about 25 - 30 minutes. And it is very important to as quickly as possible to provide quality medical care to the patient. Otherwise, a very high risk of death of a man during an attack.
To do without medical care for pulmonary edema is simply impossible, whatever it was called. The sick person should be hospitalized in intensive care as soon as possible, especially if the swelling develops acutely. Although in some cases it is possible and outpatient treatment - if the process is chronic and sluggish. For example, most often occurs if the cause of edema is chronic congestive heart failure. However, in this case the sick person should be seen regularly at the attending physician, who will monitor the situation and, if necessary, adjust the treatment.
Typically, these sick people are observed in such doctors, as a therapist - a specialist in diseases of the internal organs, cardiologist - a specialist in diseases of the cardiovascular system or the pulmonologist - a specialist in lung diseases. It all depends on what exactly the reason was the culprit of pulmonary edema.
Diagnosis of pulmonary edema
For proper diagnosis, doctors use a variety of techniques. One of the leading for many years and was still chest radiograph. In the study of the image of healthy lungs they look like bright region having shading only in the area of the heart and major blood vessels.
If the person has developed pulmonary edema, pulmonary fields enlightenment is extremely uneven. In severe cases, there is a significant clouding, and the pattern of light is rendered extremely bad. Shading light on the picture - this is the pulmonary alveoli to fill with fluid. Although, in fairness, it should be noted - X-ray examination of the sick person can tell only about the presence or absence of pulmonary edema. But to establish the root cause that led to the development of edema, using the X-ray is simply impossible.
In order to reliably determine the cause of pulmonary edema, physicians should conduct a thorough analysis of the clinical course of the attack. Often, a detailed study of these inspection sick person, his story and let you get a general survey of all necessary to identify the root causes of edema information.
There are many methods of diagnosis of pulmonary edema, but talk about them in more detail does not make sense, as this information will be clear only to medical workers. For a simple story like the same person will be only set of medical terms.
Treatment of pulmonary edema
As is clear from the above - pulmonary edema is a very serious disease. And leave it unattended - to expose the life of the sick person in serious danger. However, on their own can not take any action. All treatment should be initiated and carried out by medical workers.
Treatment is prescribed taking into account many factors: the severity of pulmonary edema causes of the swelling. For example, if a cardiogenic edema nature background, drugs used to treat heart failure. Most often pulmonary edema is observed in stroke. In addition, a whole course of the treatment of heart disease.
In that case, if the swelling is still continues to progress, in addition to drugs for the treatment of heart failure is most often appointed diuretics - diuretics. In some cases, these measures are insufficient. And the sick person still has admitted to hospital for more intensive treatment.
In the same case, if pulmonary edema is caused by, for example, a serious infection, required intensive active antibacterial or antiviral therapy. If the problem is in the kidney, all measures must be directed to the removal of kidney failure. Only if you can handle the complex therapy with renal insufficiency.
In the case of acute swelling, doctors are forced to resort to the intensive care unit. In almost all cases, inhalation of oxygen is carried out, and in the most severe - mechanical ventilation. The measure itself does not resolve pulmonary edema, but will give doctors time to find out the cause and start the necessary treatment. Very often, these doctors have reclaimed disease clocks help keep the man's life.
Before the arrival of the brigade "first aid" can try to provide first aid to the sick person. It consists in providing free access of fresh air to the sick person. Open all the windows, unbutton collars liberate man from clothing and garter belts. This is the only thing that you can do yourself in a similar situation. But very often this simple measure helps save lives.
How to avoid pulmonary edema?
Pulmonary edema is extremely dangerous not only for health but for life. In that case, if the swelling will last for a very long time, there is a risk of severe hypoxia - oxygen starvation. And first of all very much affected the brain and central nervous system. And as all things can turn around - not hard to guess, from light to heavy vegetative disorders of nervous system lesions. Therefore, all the doctors in one voice urged people to try to minimize the risk of such complications.
Of course, completely exclude the possibility of pulmonary edema is not possible, however, to take some measures still stands. First, if a person suffers from heart disease, he should be under constant medical supervision. It is unacceptable to ignore the medication and implementation of the recommendations of doctors.
Do not forget that in some cases cause pulmonary edema can become a particular allergen. Therefore, a person who knows about his allergic predisposition should be avoided contact with the allergen. Otherwise, the increased risk of lung edema repeatedly. By the way - allergies should always carry antihistamines in case of sudden allergic attack.
In that case, if a person is working in hazardous conditions associated with the inhalation of various chemicals, it should also take precautions - to work in a respirator to comply with all the rules and regularly attend checkups. When the first symptoms of lung edema person must as soon as possible to seek help from a doctor.
And finally I would like to remind about such dangers as smoking. Very often when pulmonary edema doctors find root cause - the inhalation of toxic fumes, infections, heart disease. However, almost no one relates this phenomenon to the fact that the sick person smokes regularly. But nicotine is the real catalyst for all pathological processes, not only in the human lung, but also throughout the body.
Therefore, if a patient man has the slightest conditions to the development of pulmonary edema, it needs as quickly as possible to get rid of such addiction. Of course, quitting smoking is not so simple, but quite real. It would be the desire. For human health - this is the most precious thing. And people are often their own actions deteriorating health.