Viral hepatitis A, as well as C, alas, is not the last in the list of common diseases of the liver - they accounted for 70% of all illnesses. However, despite the fact that these viruses are hepatitis sufficiently similar, the differences in their clinical symptoms and adverse effects on the body are radically different.
To determine the type of hepatitis and to receive the necessary medical care, sick people should as soon as possible to seek medical assistance. The doctor will diagnose the disease, to specify a type of HCV, appropriate treatment.
Viral hepatitis A, which is also known as infectious disease, and the common name hepatitis "jaundice" is radically different from all other types of viral hepatitis. This disease, unlike the others, has no chronic forms of flow, and is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. This virus is similar to hepatitis A hepatitis E - least common form of hepatitis.
Viral hepatitis A very favorably with hepatitis C so that the cells of the liver damaging effect. In fact, hepatitis A is an inflammatory process, which involved the liver cells infected with the virus. In response to the entry of the pathogen into the cells of the liver into the blood begin to actively elicit protective cells.
Distributed by viral hepatitis A is very wide - observation of doctors, had been ill with the virus every fourth person. And many of them had been ill with the disease in childhood, often without symptoms - children carry hepatitis C is much easier than adults, and become immune for life. In adults, the disease often occurs in very severe - the sick person has to be hospitalized. Typically, this is due to the fact that adult humans is much more variety of opportunistic diseases.
To date, most outbreaks of hepatitis A are located in countries with warm climates, especially if sanitary conditions are poor. Doctors note that often their help treat people who have recently returned from trips to countries such as Turkey, India, Central Asia, Egypt. A survey of physicians diagnose hepatitis A.
Treacherous Hepatitis C is that it is very resistant to various external influences, and the environment, it can survive for a very long time - sometimes up to several months. Even if the targeted treatment of hepatitis A virus is not immediately killed. Judge for yourself:
- Boil for ten - fifteen minutes, and in some cases more.
- Chlorination contaminated surface - approximately 30 - 40 minutes continuously.
- Processing contaminated surface formalin - at least three hours continuously.
- Processing contaminated surface 20% ethyl alcohol.
Mode of transmission of hepatitis A
The only source of hepatitis C infection today is a sick man. Since feces it releases into the environment hepatitis A virus, which sooner or later falls into the natural water cycle. This means that the virus with high probability can fall into drinking water, food - and they penetrate into the human body. That is why it is important to carefully handle the heat all meat and fish dishes as well as seafood dishes.
Moreover, the lion's share of infections is in the summer, when a lot of fruits and vegetables - they are also often a very large number of hepatitis A. That is why in any case inadmissible use of dirty vegetables and fruit. And for their washing it is not for any water - do not use unsuitable for drinking, since it also may contain the hepatitis A virus
Unlike hepatitis C, hepatitis A infection during transfusion of contaminated blood or blood components occurs very rarely. And no wonder - the children who have this form of hepatitis may be asymptomatic blood donors may not be, but in adults it occurs in a distinct form, so as to become a donor, he can not.
Scheme standard infection - hepatitis B virus through the mouth enter the digestive system, and are absorbed from the gut and enter the bloodstream. Virus from the bloodstream very quickly penetrate into the cells of the liver, which develops an inflammatory process. Thereafter viruses via the bile duct into the intestine, and from the gut - again in the environment.
The most dangerous to others a sick person in the next period of time - during the last week of the incubation period and the first week of illness. The incubation period for hepatitis A is approximately 14 - 20 days, but most of the time of infection, of course, the sick person is not known.
At a time when the hepatitis A virus is in the blood of the sick person, the disease manifests itself outwardly symptoms of acute respiratory diseases: cough, runny nose, fever, general signs of intoxication. But once there comes a period of jaundice, hepatitis A virus entirely leaves the body of the sick person, and jaundice is only an immune response of the body. However, I would like to remind once again that often viral hepatitis A can occur even without jaundice period.
The appearance of jaundice period indicates that there was a fairly extensive liver damage - approximately 65 - 70%, so a sick person shows immediate hospitalization in infectious disease clinic. Refusing admission still not worth it, because with proper and timely treatment, which is provided in a hospital setting, the work of the liver, as well as its structure is restored in full.
In the event that viral hepatitis A occurs in completely healthy people, it always ends in complete recovery. But in that case, if the sick person has a particular disease, especially chronic form of other types of hepatitis, the disease is much more severe and prolonged, and the prognosis of doctors are not so optimistic.
In some patients, people over time - weeks, and sometimes months may relapse - the person reappear all the symptoms of jaundice period - yellowing of sclera and mucous membranes, general intoxication of the organism. And treatment of hepatitis B have to start again. Such relapses are observed in about 25% of all adults infected with hepatitis A.
In some cases, hepatitis A can trigger the development of complications such as hemolysis. Hemolysis doctors call the destruction of blood cells such as erythrocytes. As a result, damage to the kidneys can occur, and, as a consequence, the development of acute renal failure - as a result of a person's life would be endangered.
Despite the fact that hepatitis A virtually never leads to pathological changes in the liver, in some cases it still occurs. Basically, a similar phenomenon occurs in the elderly, in whom the disease is nearly asymptomatic. Typically, in such cases, bed rest sick person does not comply, which means very high risk of developing liver fibrosis - a pathological scarring of liver tissue. This complication may result from dyskinesia of the bile ducts.
Diagnosis of hepatitis A
Diagnosis of hepatitis A is not particularly difficult if, of course it is not about asymptomatic disease. The first doctor draws attention to the obvious clinical manifestations of the disease - the symptoms of acute respiratory illness, icteric manifestation. Seeing these manifestations, the doctor will prescribe a series of surveys.
The first thing to do - is to examine the blood in the lab. Usually, the doctor - laboratory notes the high content of certain liver enzymes and, of course, bilirubin. These figures clearly indicate that there has been damage to the cells and tissues of the liver. Immediately afterwards, you must make a differential diagnosis of other viral hepatitis.
Treatment of hepatitis A
The most important in the treatment of acute hepatitis A is a strict adherence to diet and nutrition. In the first two weeks of illness the sick person shows a strict bed rest. This requirement doctors explain the fact that the blood supply to the liver in the supine position is much more effective, and hence the restoration of damaged hepatitis A virus liver cells and tissues will be much more intense.
Equally important is the strict adherence to a medical diet. In - the first, just to draw attention to the fact that the best option is to split meals - eating sick person has to get small portions, but the time interval between meals should not be more than two hours.
Permitted food for a sick person:
A sick person should give up fresh bread, replacing it with breadcrumbs or, in extreme cases, bread baked at least a day ago. Of the first courses is to give preference to vegetable and dairy soups, soups and pasta-based vegetable broth. From dishes sick person can eat lean beef and chicken breast or baked, or boiled. In addition, you can eat lean boiled fish, such as hake, carp, pike, saffron cod.
In addition, it is possible without limitation to use vegetables, herbs, semi-viscous cereals, oatmeal and curd puddings and casseroles. From drinks recommended drinking tea, cranberry juice, jelly.
In the event that viral hepatitis A is mild, no further treatment is required. However, despite this, the ill person should be in a hospital setting, under the constant supervision of medical staff, so that if the deterioration will immediately start pharmacological therapy.
In the same case, if the symptoms are expressed very clearly, doctors will conduct detoxification therapy. The essence of this therapy is to reduce the level of toxins in the body of the sick person. These toxins accumulate due to liver dysfunction. This is usually used by intravenous injection of special solutions.
Today, one of the very urgent problem for physicians is hepatitis C. The disease is very insidious - doctors have dubbed it "tender murderer". Often the disease is suspected fails only when a person has cirrhosis or even liver cancer. As the medical statistics, these diseases develop in about half of all people with hepatitis.
There are several types of hepatitis, viral hepatitis, however, C is the most widespread. Doctors believe that this trend is linked to the fact that the disease is a very long time, asymptomatic, which means that the sick person, unaware of their disease, infect the people around him. According to official medical static data, to date, only Russia has more than 5 million people infected.
Hepatitis C virus for scientists - microbiologists is quite a lot of interest - Currently, there is a considerable number of different varieties of the virus. And what is most interesting - several varieties of hepatitis C virus can co-exist in one and the same ill person. These kinds of medicine are called quasi-species.
These so-called quasi-species virus formed through surprising ability of HCV to a modification, and in the body of an infected person. Due to this property of its hepatitis C virus avoids the harmful effects to their immune system cells. It is because of this disease progresses so quickly, sometimes even in spite of the complex treatment.
In addition, the hepatitis C virus is quite resistant to environmental negative impacts and viable. Even at room temperature, the virus in the environment has remained unchanged for 16 - 24 hours. In some cases, some subtypes of hepatitis C virus can survive for several days.
Infection by hepatitis C virus
Today, doctors know the two main routes of transmission of hepatitis C virus:
Hepatitis B virus in large amounts is on the mucous membranes of the genital organs and all body fluids - semen, vaginal secretions. Therefore, in the case of unprotected intercourse the risk of infection is very high, and may reach 90%. Therefore, in no case should not be allowed intercourse without taking all necessary precautions. The risk of transmission of hepatitis C through sexual contact includes homosexuals and all those people who are promiscuous, not using personal protective equipment.
Also, the hepatitis C virus can enter the body through transfusion of his blood or blood components, the donor of which is an infected person. Not so long ago this was the route of infection is widespread, but in recent years with the introduction of methods of laboratory diagnosis and mandatory laboratory testing of donors for the presence of hepatitis C virus-like way of infection is extremely rare.
Currently, the most common method of infection with hepatitis C, except, of course, sex is the use of non-sterile medical and cosmetic tools. For example, recently there has been a real surge of hepatitis C in people who do tattoos or piercings.
Tragically, even the most expensive beauty salons sometimes to sterilize instruments fit in bad faith. So try to choose those salons that use disposable instruments. The same goes for the manicure room. And do not forget about personal hygiene - not give anyone their own and not take other people's toothbrushes, razors.
Medical needles are also often the source of infection with hepatitis C virus, for example, the greatest number of patients with hepatitis among drug addicts there. As a rule, they almost never care about whatever it was sterile - often one and the same needle injection is two, those four people, and sometimes more. In addition, sometimes the victims of these methods of infection are health care workers who accidentally pricked with needles, which before that were injected with the sick person.
Acute hepatitis C
The incubation period for hepatitis C in duration can vary greatly - from two weeks to 160 days. However, the average duration is approximately 50 days. And despite the fact that most people have hepatitis occurs without any - any symptoms for several months, and sometimes years, sometimes some patients develop an acute form of hepatitis C.
Develop an acute form of hepatitis C in two stages. The first stage of the disease is called anicteric period, since at this stage of the sick person there are a number of signs of general malaise of the body, such as:
- Reduction or complete loss of appetite, significant weight loss of the patient.
- Rapidly emerging fatigue, hypersomnia, general lethargy.
- Indigestion - nausea, vomiting, flatulence, belching.
- In some cases a significant increase in body temperature.
- Symptoms of ARI - a cough, runny nose, headache, pain in the throat.
This state lasts for about two weeks, after which comes directly jaundiced period of acute hepatitis C. The first symptom alarming - this change in urine color - darkening it. Urine gets the color of dark beer, dark - brown. About a day after the change in color of urine yellow hue becoming the sclera, mucous membranes, eyes and mouth, skin - especially palm. When is icteric period, symptoms of general malaise, as clearly expressed in the first period, almost entirely disappear. And in their place comes a feeling of heaviness in the right upper quadrant and providing stool, which occurs due to blockage of the bile passages.
Treatment for hepatitis C is complex and long, so it can only be carried out under the close supervision of medical personnel.