Kidney disease periodically plagued roughly two-thirds of the total adult population. And most often the case acute pyelonephritis. What is this disease, what it is called and how to fight it? This is what will be discussed below.
Doctors called pyelonephritis non-specific inflammation of the kidneys that affects the connective tissue of the kidney, as well as the initial part of the urinary tract - pyelocaliceal system. Nonspecific inflammation called because there is not a result of penetration of a certain type of pathogens, and many different pathogenic bacteria.
Pyelonephritis can overtake a person at any age, but is most often experienced by people with him at the age of 20 to 40. Women often inflammation of the kidneys develops as a consequence of the inflammatory process that takes place in the bladder. In men, the pathogenic bacteria enter the bloodstream to the kidneys.
Types of acute pyelonephritis
Doctors are two types of acute pyelonephritis - primary and secondary. In the primary disease pyelonephritis is not preceded by any other diseases such as inflammation of the bladder. But the secondary pyelonephritis disease is preceded by other urological diseases that disrupt blood flow to the kidneys and lead to a violation of the outflow of urine.
The inflammatory process in pyelonephritis can be serous and purulent. Sometimes there is a comprehensive pyelonephritis - first process is not pus, but if the patient does not receive appropriate treatment, there may be pus. Also, sometimes in acute pyelonephritis in kidneys is formed huge number of small ulcers. There may also be some large pockets of festering.
Causes of acute pyelonephritis
In almost all cases, acute pyelonephritis is caused by the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms in the kidneys. As a rule, this microflora is E. coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus. Penetrates into the kidney pathogenic microflora may be different ways:
Bacteria can enter the blood from the kidney of various infectious sources available in the human body. These sources of infection can be diseases such as dental caries, chronic tonsillitis and other chronic diseases of internal organs.
In that case, if a person has inflammation in the urinary tract or the bladder itself, such as cystitis and urethritis, infection can penetrate the kidney in ascending pathways. The most common route of infection similar in women, due to the physiological characteristics of the structure of the urogenital system.
Pyelonephritis is another feature. In that case, if absolutely healthy kidney, acute inflammatory process will not develop even if they penetrate into the bacteria. To acute pyelonephritis started, it requires a number of precipitating factors. These factors include:
- Severe liver disease. As you know, as a kind of filter, cleansing the body of toxins and other unwanted substances to it, playing the liver and kidneys. And if the liver with its function can not cope, the kidneys imposed a double burden.
- Immunocompromised. In that case, if the immune system is weakened, it can not provide the necessary resistance to the pathogenic microflora. As a result of developing acute pyelonephritis.
- All diseases anyhow connected with hormonal disorders and metabolic disorders.
Also very much depends on local factors possessing. These factors include various abnormalities of the urinary tract, both congenital and acquired - especially those areas that are responsible for the passage of urine. Most often acute purulent pyelonephritis occur in those patients who have broken a passage (passage) of urine.
The principle of the development of acute pyelonephritis and its symptoms
In that case, if a person develops acute primary pyelonephritis, pathogens penetrate into the kidneys via the bloodstream and in the bladder and urinary tract there was no inflammation. In this case, the inflammatory process often develops in one kidney, but can sometimes be a double-sided, though less frequently.
Self inflammatory process begins in the frame kidney, so-called interstitial tissue. In it there is a huge number of small infiltrates - stage serous inflammation. In the event that it becomes purulent inflammation, in place of infiltration appear most ulcers. In the absence of timely adequate treatment of the inflammatory process continues to spread in the renal tissue itself. In this case the disease becomes a particularly severe form of the flow.
In that case, if it is a secondary pyelonephritis, it is preceded by any disease or pathological changes in the urogenital tract. Secondary pyelonephritis is most common in people who suffer from diseases such as:
- Kidney stones and bladder.
- Adenoma of the prostate gland in men.
- The narrowing of the ureters and urethra.
These diseases are often disturb the flow of urine, resulting in trophic changes may occur kidney tissue. As a result of the infection is very easily penetrate into the diseased tissue, in which the inflammatory process develops. Incidentally, the secondary pyelonephritis inflammation is almost always purulent and require more serious treatment.
Pyelonephritis is quite specific and easily recognizable symptoms, which the physician will be able to easily establish the diagnosis. So acute pyelonephritis symptoms:
- The sharp increase in body temperature to a sufficiently high numbers.
- Feeling very chill.
- Severe headaches that do not pass after taking painkillers.
- There may be a feeling of nausea and vomiting.
Furthermore, human cases of acute pyelonephritis, aching aching, the spins on one side or the other. As a rule, the process of urination with pyelonephritis is not broken, but the volume of urine is reduced. This is due to the fact that the sick person is very large amount of fluid lost in sweat, because perspiration during illness is very abundant.
Typically, for a secondary pyelonephritis is always much worse than primary, because in almost all cases, becomes purulent. It is also very often a secondary pyelonephritis complicated phenomena such as nephritis, or kidney abscess. It should also be noted that most often precedes the strongest secondary pyelonephritis renal colic - the strongest cramping pain.
Although these symptoms are typical of most acute pyelonephritis, yet there are several other diseases that may have similar symptoms also. That is why setting a more accurate diagnosis doctor prescribes a series of additional tests that will help avoid mistakes.
- General urine analysis. On the first place, the sick person must pass urinalysis. As a rule, if a person suffers from acute pyelonephritis in his urine is a huge amount of bacteria. Also in the urine after a few days after the onset of leukocytes appear. And have a diagnostic value only active white blood cells. Activity of leukocytes are those white blood cells, which are allocated directly from the pockets of inflammation. They contain the absorbed bacteria.
- Microbiological examination of urine. Also, for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis it is very important microbiological examination of urine. It is held as follows: - a urine culture is placed in a special nutrient medium, in order to identify exactly which pathogen has caused the disease and what antibiotics sensitive pathogenic microflora.
- General blood analysis. Laboratory examination of blood reveals the presence of inflammation in the body, as well as the level of intoxication. As a rule, it is advisable to carry out blood tests no sooner than the second - the third day after the onset of the disease. Otherwise, changes in the blood may not yet manifest.
- Ultrasound diagnostics. In order to establish what form of pyelonephritis occurs - primary or secondary, as well as identify possible pathological changes in the urinary tract, a sick person carried ultrasound of the kidneys and urinary tract.
- Other studies. If necessary, your doctor may decide to conduct additional types of studies. Examples of these studies include x-ray of the kidneys and urinary tract, radioisotope study, excretory urography - to carry it out to a human patient is administered intravenously special contrast agent and then some time later made an X-ray of the kidneys, cystography - to carry it out the contrast agent is injected into the bladder. All of these types of studies will help to identify possible obstacles to urine flow.
Treatment of acute pyelonephritis
Of course, pyelonephritis requires immediate treatment. Treatment should only be done under strict medical supervision. All medical treatment is predominantly - a sick person appointed anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and analgesic pharmacological agents. The regime should be mostly bed, most gentle diet. And, of course, can not forget the plentiful drink. Ideal alkaline fruit drinks and non-carbonated mineral water.
In the event that a person is sick secondary pyelonephritis, the goal of treatment is to restore normal urine terrain. Also, he appointed antibiotics and agents that strengthen the immune system. In that case, if the flow of urine is difficult due to the presence in the organs of urinary tract stones, made their removal. In severe cases, if the purulent process, despite treatment, continues to progress, doctors are forced to resort to the removal of the affected kidney. That is why you must immediately seek help from a doctor at the first sign of the disease.
Diet with pyelonephritis
For successful treatment of pyelonephritis it is very important to follow the right diet. In the acute stage of the disease, doctors recommend to enter into a diet sick person those vegetables and fruits that have a diuretic effect - such as squash, melons and watermelons.
After about three days, if the symptoms are not as pronounced, the sick person must comply with milk - plant diet. It dramatically reduce the consumption of salt and completely exclude the following products:
- Canned, salted and smoked products.
- Any condiments and spices, especially sharp.
- Coffee and caffeinated products.
- Fizzy drinks.
- Alcoholic drinks.
- Mushrooms and mushroom broth.
- Peas and other legumes.
Preference should be given to products such as milk - milk, kefir, yogurt, vegetable - cooked vegetables, in shabby form. All kinds of fruits that are rich in potassium - dried apricots, raisins, butter, salt-free bread.
Diet with acute pyelonephritis is very important, but we can not forget the need to respect the power. Eating should be a fraction - small portions every two - three hours. In no case is inadmissible fry foods - they need to boil or stew.