It seems to be an indisputable fact: Smoking - harm smoking during pregnancy - is doubly harmful. After all, at the same time it suffers not only the woman's body. Tobacco smoke hurts and her unborn child.
However, the statistics are as follows: 22% of smokers, even expecting a child, do not leave the habit. Thus almost 8, 5% had smoked ten cigarettes a day, and sometimes more. Some of them are talking about the dangers of smoking for the future child is treated as an empty "horror stories". Let us try to understand -
The dangers of smoking during pregnancy?
Cigarette smoke contains about four thousand substances harmful to humans. Of these, the best known
- carbon monoxide
- Nicotine - a substance that narrows blood vessels
- benzene, are carcinogenic
- hydrocyanic acid
Probably many people remember from school more times that the substance firmly binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin - stable compound, unable to carry oxygen. Thus, smoking leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in all organs of smokers, and during pregnancy - also in all the organs of the future baby.
Once doctors believed that the placenta keeps any harmful substances, preventing them from getting into the blood of the baby. However, further studies have shown that - alas! - For carbon monoxide placenta does not represent a serious obstacle. This poison can easily cross the placenta, linking the hemoglobin in the blood of the fetus. Moreover, it was found out that the amount of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood of the crumbs may be even 10 - 15% higher than in the maternal blood.
And if you remember more and that smokers have "experienced" often have respiratory diseases, which also impede the flow of oxygen into the body - can only feel sorry for the poor kid who literally suffocating in the womb.
Scientific studies have shown that nicotine can influence the levels of certain hormones. For example, it reduces production of progesterone, which is just responsible for safe carrying of pregnancy.
Furthermore, it was found extremely adverse effect of nicotine on the placenta. The majority of women who smoked more than ten cigarettes a day, in the placenta were found dead areas. Placenta smoking women are more delicate, its mass is often lower than normal. Even its shape is different from the non-smoking women form the placenta. It is clear that such a placenta worse cope with its functions.
Under the influence of nicotine possible premature separation of the placenta, its extensive infarctions. These phenomena can cause fetal death. Relentless statistics show that such cases occur in women who smoke, regardless of how well they are fed.
In addition, nicotine causes vasospasm uterus. As a result, the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the baby difficult.
Other effects of smoking during pregnancy
Some substances that enter the body when a woman smoking, suppress the immune system. Therefore, smokers often suffer. It is understood that unnecessary illnesses moms are not good for the baby.
Doctors say that during pregnancy often exacerbated disease provoked by prolonged smoking. For example, thyroid disease that women smokers are found six times more often. During pregnancy problems "shchitovidkoj" increase, some women develop symptoms of Graves' disease - an extremely unpleasant disease, which, incidentally, is a serious threat to the future of the child (mёrtvorozhdenie, prematurity).
Women who smoke are much more likely than nonsmokers to suffer severe toxicosis (both early and late). It increases the likelihood of premature birth or, conversely, perenashivanie pregnancy.
Women who smoke genera often longer. The probability of complications during childbirth in smokers increased almost twice.
It would seem that this is enough for pregnant women to give up their habit for the sake of the health of the child. However, many smokers are in no hurry to give up cigarettes, calming himself reasoning that it's not so scary.
Myths about smoking
- "Grass" are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Smoking marijuana or hashish - and your innocent weakness did not hurt the baby? However, as the experiments on pregnant female animals and monitoring of women who use "grass" during pregnancy, showed that such a "weakness" can not be considered harmless.
Smoking "grass" leads to hypoxia in fetal exactly the same as when smoking tobacco. In children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, marijuana, hashish, marijuana, observed: fetal growth retardation; Disturbances of the nervous system; violation of the formation of organs of vision; the body of newborn babies is weakened, they usually get sick more often than their peers.
In addition, some children show the so-called "fetal cannabis syndrome," where women who used "grass", gave birth to children with various mental disorders.
- Proper nutrition and vitamins to help compensate for the adverse effects of smoking on the body of the pregnant and give birth to a healthy baby. However, as we have seen above, is the use of nutrients may be low, if the damaged nicotine placenta is unable to fully deliver their baby.
- The thing is heredity - say proponents of smoking. And non-smokers are sick children and give birth Zdorovenki smokers. If we are destined to rebёnochku born weak and sick, so he will be born, even smoke, do not smoke though.
Heredity, of course, from the accounts are not reset. Just like other adverse factors. But smoking may aggravate the health problems of the baby. Besides, if someone's friend, "smoked and gave birth to a healthy child" - it is about nothing she says. The statistics still more informative.
What the statistics?
All statistical data confirm that smoking pregnant women is indeed a threat to their future children.
Miscarriage and premature birth
As shown by studies conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom, the risk of miscarriage in women smokers in the 30 - 70% higher. The death rate during childbirth - 30%, the risk of sudden death of the newborn - 52%.
According to Czech doctors in 96% of cases of miscarriage was associated with maternal smoking. The probability of premature birth appeared directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked by a woman. As it turned out, smoking of cigarettes a day, four already represents a serious danger to the unborn child.
French researchers conducted observations of 9169 pregnant women in the 13 Parisian maternity wards, and came to the same conclusion: the risk of intrauterine death of a child depends on the number of cigarettes smoked by the mother.
Newborn babies born to smoking mothers, according to the statistics, have an average body weight of 200 - 300 grams lower than the norm. And weight loss are the children of those mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy itself, but had this habit before it became pregnant.
Even if the mother smokes moderately (ie smoked per day less than 9 cigarettes), this fact by 20% increases the likelihood of the death of her newborn baby and twice - the risk of various malformations. Heart defects, inguinal hernia, strabismus, cleft palate, cleft lip - all of these disorders are more common in children of smoking mothers. American doctors also claim that smoking increases the probability of the birth of a baby with Down syndrome.
It was found that babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, there are such consequences of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) as:
- bad dream
- irritability, frequent crying
- difficulties with breastfeeding
In the future, these children often fall behind in physical and mental development, are less resistant to infectious diseases often suffer from bronchitis, and lung diseases.
According to WHO statistics, the effects of maternal smoking are manifested in children up to six years. These children later begin to read, count. Going through psychological tests, they show a bit worse results than the children of non-smoking mothers.
In the UK, carried out surveillance over 17 thousand. Children. Scientists are carefully inspected babies immediately after birth, and then repeated the inspection, seven and eleven years later. It was found that children who "smoked" in utero, along with their mothers, even in the age of seven and eleven years have shown slowing of mental and physical development. Infants of mothers who smoked more than ten cigarettes per day had increased by 1 cm (average) is less than in other children. These children also lagged behind in math and reading.
German doctors have also allocated 17 thousand children to observe and got similar results. Children of mothers who smoked eleven were weaker than their peers in the long run, reading and writing. The results of psychological tests were not the best.
The conclusion is clear: smoking can not be pregnant! But how to deal with this habit?
How to quit smoking?
On the women's forums are occasionally found messages that relate to smoking during pregnancy. Often there are disputes - is it possible to get rid of the desire for a cigarette?
"It is possible and necessary! "- Meet the woman who once smoked, but left this habit during pregnancy, or even before it started. "It's quite difficult! "- Objected to those who are not yet able to give up cigarettes. Those and others are eager to share with future moms secrets: how to quit smoking or, if not possible, to reduce the number of cigarettes to a minimum. Here are their tips:
- Gradually reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. In a cigarette, for polsigaretki per day. Try to distract yourself with something. If you want to take your hands - they take a drawing or crossword puzzles. If there is a need something to keep in your mouth - nibble a carrot or a straw, seeds, suck candy or frozen juice. If smoking helps you relax - read something, listen to relaxing music. If smoking is for you - the way of pleasure, try to invent a more harmless fun.
- Invent yourself some reward for quitting smoking. For example, calculate how much you spend on cigarettes in a year and the money to buy something for herself or for the baby.
- Choose with fewer cigarette nicotine.
- Do fewer puffs.
- Smoke only half a cigarette (closer to the filter increases the concentration of harmful substances).
- Try to smoke without inhaling.
- Never buy cigarettes store.
- Leave the cigarettes somewhere far away, in the wrong place (for example, in the garage).
- Do not scold yourself if plucked. On the contrary, rejoice in their achievements. After each puff, from which you refused - it is a victory!
If all your efforts for two weeks did not lead to the desired results, think about how to address to the psychotherapist. Especially if smoking cessation is causing your anxiety.
Quit smoking, it is desirable even in the planning stage of pregnancy at least a year before the alleged conception. And not only the expectant mother, but the father and the future. After all, smoking fathers often occur sperm abnormality.
It was found that babies are born with congenital fathers who smoke are twice as likely than non-smokers. In addition, passive smoking during pregnancy affects the baby, no less than smoking mother herself. So let poisonous smoke does not hurt the baby to be born healthy!