Hormones, hormones ... The life of a woman starts with them and ends with them. Sexual development begins in utero, and from 15 weeks can determine the sex of the unborn child. A further development of women is divided into several periods. Each of them has its own characteristics. None of them can not be called simple. But the physiological stage of menopause is the most difficult.
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Menopause - the basics
The question arises: when menopause comes, treatment necessary?
Menopause (menopause) can take a long time (10 years). It starts in most cases, after 40 years. But it may be an early or late (35-55). Hormonal changes in women lead to the gradual extinction of reproductive functions. This long period is divided into two phases. Its first phase - premenopausal - characterized by the fact that the duration of menstruation and the regularity begin to change. Selections can be both very lean and very rich, but their rhythm unstable.
Postmenopause - the second phase of menopause. At this time the hormonal activity of the ovaries dies, monthly cease completely and the reproductive system of women there is a period of physiological rest. Menopause - an essential aging stage that every woman worries her. Someone special changes in the body and in the mind does not happen, and someone appears a set of symptoms called climacteric syndrome.
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Menopause: Causes and Consequences
Since about 35 years the amount of estrogen (a hormone that is needed for the onset of menstruation and pregnancy) and progesterone begins to decline steadily. And it decreases until the month is not completely cease, and the reproductive function of women will not go out. Because the sex hormones are actively involved in the regulation of various organs and systems of the body, there comes a temporary disruption of bodily functions that need to adapt to new conditions of life.
Estrogen affects the heart, urogenital system, the thermoregulatory system, the condition of the bones, skin and hair. At deficiency of the hormone appear "failure", the severity of which depends on the presence of stress factors, the presence of acute or chronic diseases, sexual or psycho-emotional disorders. Female genital organs are undergoing significant structural changes down to atrophy. And there is a need for treatment.
Ovaries gradually reduce the synthesis of progesterone and estrogen. Their mass is reduced to 6-7 g to 4 of their follicular unit is gradually dying, and the vessels are replaced by connective tissue.
The shape and weight of the uterus is also significantly changed due to atrophic processes. Its walls are sealed, thinner. Muscle fibers are replaced by fibrous tissue.
Already, shorter and thinner are the fallopian tubes. A cilia on their free edge is completely atrophied.
The mucous membrane of the vagina loses elasticity. Reduces the synthesis of lactic acid and glycogen, leading to a change in pH environment of the vagina to an acidic or neutral to alkaline, which promotes the growth of pathological microorganisms. This often leads to atrophic vaginitis and treatment.
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The regularity of the menstrual cycle during menopause syndrome begins to change before menopause. Its duration gets longer or shorter as compared with the previous period. Quite often at this time there may be dysfunctional uterine bleeding, which are due to violation of the synthesis of the corpus luteum and follicles. Such bleeding are varying intensity and duration. Sometimes so strong that they must be treated immediately to avoid the occurrence of risk to the woman's life. A spotting may occur in the middle of the cycle.
Lowering estrogen causes vaginal dryness. Its walls lose elasticity, become thinner and begin to devote less and less secret. Stiff and dry vagina can cause discomfort during intercourse and in everyday life. This problem can be avoided treatment of various candles and water-soluble lubricants.
Loss of sex hormones affects the muscle tone of the urinary tract. In some cases, lowering it so significant that developing urinary incontinence, which causes the need for urological pads.
Changeable mood, poor sleep, irritability, fatigue, depression, sweating, accelerated aging of the skin, muscle and joint pain - these satellites menopause, the occurrence of which depends on a low sex hormone levels. But the most common symptom of early and that allows us to speak of a climacteric syndrome and its severity are tides. 75-85% of the female population experienced what is hot flashes.
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Climax: the tides
The tides are beginning to emerge in 1-2 years before menopause. And the duration of this period can be from six months to 15 years. The protracted and difficult nature of the tides, which requires special treatment of menopause occurs in women with artificial (removal of the ovaries) or early menopause.
The occurrence of hot flushes associated with the fact that in a bunch of endocrine hypothalamic-pituitary woman's body tries to forcibly remove the lack of estrogen, causing the ovaries to produce hormones. Estrogen directly influence thermoregulation processes in the body. With a lack of the hormone in the hypothalamus receives false signals about overheating. And then include a mechanism for the protection and relief of excess heat: heart rate increases, blood vessels dilate, sweating begins.
The inclusion of these protective mechanisms woman perceived as a sudden sensation of heat. It appears in the chest and a wave rolls on the neck, head and arms. Most often, these feelings engulfed the upper body. But sometimes the tides can absorb fully the entire body.
The duration of each high tide time from 10 seconds to tens of minutes (average 3-4 minutes). Their frequency is also varied. The number of hot flashes per day determines the severity of menopausal symptoms:
1 degree - light up to 10 hot flashes without malfunction;
2 degree - the average 10-20 tides with heart palpitations, pain in the heart, headaches, dizziness, decreased performance;
Grade 3 - severe: more than 20. At the same time there are attacks of weakness, nausea, rapid and irregular heartbeat, sharp fluctuation of blood pressure, fever, loss of performance, followed by extensive cold sweats and chills. When the severity of the syndrome of menopause treatment is a necessity.
High tides can occur even during sleep. Hot flashes a woman may not notice, but the feeling of cold that occurs due to the cold and wet of sweat makes her wake up. Frequent attacks during sleep lead to its breakdown.
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Very often, the tides do not start from scratch. They contribute to the emergence of the following factors:
High ambient temperature: the hot room, sauna, shower, hot on the street;
spicy and hot food;
excessive consumption of sugar, coffee and alcohol;
neuro-psychological state (stress, anxiety).
Any woman can learn to control their hot flashes. It is necessary to analyze the attacks, identify the main factors that contribute to their occurrence, and to try to eliminate the appearance of these reasons. Questions and answers to help the woman, the following:
When (day or night) there was an attack?
What is the duration and strength he was?
At what point came tide? Were there additional sources of heat?
How much did you smoke before it (coffee drink)?
What's in the moment of an attack you drink or eat?
In what emotional state you are? Perhaps there was a stress or fatigue?
What did you do to alleviate the condition and whether these measures are effective?
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These general guidelines do not resolve themselves tides. But they will help to reduce their frequency and severity.
Observe the principles of proper nutrition. Limit your intake of spicy, salty, fatty foods. Whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products improve overall health, as It contains calcium, magnesium and fiber. And consumption will help reduce hot flashes.
Drink plenty of water (1, 5-2 liters per day). Your fluid loss during this period are enormous and need to constantly replenish. Avoid excessive kofeino- and alcohol-containing beverages.
Even if you never went to the gym, now is the time to think about increasing physical activity. Walk walk, walk more, use the stairs if there is a lift. Exercise itself does not influence on the tides. But 30 minutes of charging will significantly enhance your mood. They get rid of depression, anxiety and stress. In addition, exercise helps in the fight against osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.
Say "no" artificial fabrics and go for clothes made of linen, cotton, viscose. Synthetic fabrics poorly absorb moisture, and the unpleasant smell of sweat appears much faster. A poor ventilation and heat causes overheating and increases the number of attacks. Try to keep an open neck and wear layered outfits. By removing one of the upper layers, you can avoid the high tide.
Personal hygiene is now the norm for you. And try to take a shower at least two times a day. Reduce the unpleasant odor arising due to profuse sweating, you can use antibacterial soaps and deodorants.
Do not take on all the work and do not try to execute it immediately. Alternate time to rest. Get enough sleep. Relax. Begin to engage in meditation and yoga. This greatly relieve tension, stress and fatigue, which will certainly affect the frequency of hot flashes.
Use a water-soluble lubricant on vaginal dryness. Vaseline in this case is not an assistant.
Begin treatment of menopause with performing these simple guidelines.
Be sure to consult a doctor if the tides are preventing you live and work normally.
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Tides and stress
The main factor-provocateur appearance tide - stress. Remain calm in the rhythm of modern life is very difficult. Conflicts at work and at home, important meetings, public speeches, reports, late ... The list is long. And even knowing that all these factors contribute to the occurrence of hot flashes, avoid them in real life will not succeed. It is therefore important to try to learn how to control hot flashes, even in critical situations. For this:
Carry water in a small bottle. A couple of sips of cold water to suspend the appearance and prevent the development of attack.
It will help reduce the severity of the tide blowing his breath. Carry a fan. Find somewhere near the place with a fan or air conditioning.
Try not to be late for a meeting, and it will not cause you too much excitement. Well, if such a situation arose, it is better to call back and upfront about being late. Think you can communicate with the waiting you in advance. Do not hurry.
Diaphragmatic breathing calms the nervous system. If you feel the approaching tide, take a few slow deep breaths with your eyes closed. Sing at home, outdoors, at work, preferably in full voice. It also develops a deep breath.
If you caught the tide during the report presentation, a report, an important conversation, try not to think about the tide. It is better to focus on the subject. After that at the moment you have a rush and no one guesses, except for you. Stay confident and it gives strength.
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The need to use drug therapy treatment of menopause occurs when you have completed all the recommendations bezmedikamentoznogo reduce the frequency and severity of hot flushes, but they were not enough.
Recommendations how to treat menopause, you should only give the doctor considering your condition.
In the treatment of menopause, the following drugs:
Lowers blood pressure. Because tides are often accompanied by a sharp increase in blood pressure. It is important to remember that prescribe such drugs to change their dosage in the treatment of menopause can be a doctor.
Soft sedatives lower lability of the nervous system, which reduces the frequency of attacks.
Antidepressants are prescribed for the treatment of menopause, which is accompanied by depressive disorders.
Preparations hormone replacement therapy containing estrogen, which makes up for their deficiency in the body. The scheme of the drugs themselves are selected individually.
Use all of these drugs in the treatment of menopause only after consultation with your doctor.