HPV (or HPV) - is the generic name of viruses, which includes a DNA virus infecting epithelial cells. This group of viruses includes more than 150 representatives and causes various diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. More than 30 types of viruses cause the development of genital infections. The greatest risk of this virus is that it is an oncogene and can cause a variety of tumors and squamous cell carcinoma. The greatest danger the virus poses to human pappilomy women. Men do not suffer so much from the consequences, so they are called carriers.
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General information and the risk of infection
The most common method of infection is sexual intercourse. Moreover, the risk of infection is directly proportional to the number of associated sexual partners: the more partners, the greater the chance of infection. Modern medicine believes that the possible contamination by household. This issue is still not fully understood: it is very difficult to determine the time of infection, because the incubation period can last up to several years, depending on the state of immunity, and the carrier asymptomatic for a long time people may not even realize that he is a carrier. It can be transmitted through kissing (if papilloma located on the lips). In medical practice, reported cases of infection of newborns from infected mothers during childbirth, but the risk of this infection is considered low at 3%.
The amount of virus depends on the skin and mucosal immunity. By reducing the latter virus is actively starts hitting human cells accumulate in a small area of the skin. Having accumulated sufficient, the virus starts to change the function of the epithelial cells. The cells start to divide uncontrollably. This causes growth of the area of skin and the appearance of the various formations (papillomas and warts) on the human body.
Depending on the type of virus and the different conditions that caused it. Therefore, will vary and symptoms.
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Warts - convex, round or irregular shape sealed painless skin formation of small size. They are usually located in the most traumatic places - the elbows, fingers, knees. Sometimes it may suddenly disappear. Cause aesthetic discomfort, especially in women.
Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common symptom) - soft, rounded, flesh-colored (sometimes closer to brown) education, which are mounted either on a broad basis, or on foot. Most often located on the face, armpits, on the neck, in the genital area. An important feature is that the rapidly proliferating papilloma: increasing their size and quantity.
Genital warts - warts peculiar appearing on the mucous membranes and genitals. Favorite places of their appearance can be called the perineum, the mucous membrane of the labia majora, the vagina in women. The men - skin of the foreskin and the glans penis. Number of papillomas may vary - from 1 to several hundred in a small area. In medical practice, there is also such a thing as a drain genital warts - genital warts several merger into a single entity, in appearance resembling a cauliflower.
Bowenoid papulosis - precipitation in the form of compacted plaques yellow, pink or white on the skin of the genitals. Sometimes it flows in skin cancer.
Flat warts of the cervix (cervical dysplasia) is a precancerous condition, often degenerate into cancer. Visually represent the colony buds, topped with horny epithelium. So as not to miss the disease, women should be planned to visit a gynecologist every six months.
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In the process of infection allocate 3 forms of human papillomavirus: latent, subclinical and clinical.
Latent form - the absence of any signs of illness. The virus can only be detected when inspected for CDV DNA in humans.
Subclinical infection - there are signs of the disease in the form of small warts or abnormal changes in the cervix. But they are so small that they are not visible to the naked eye. Are revealed only during the special methods of investigation.
Clinical - visible to the naked eye, skin formation of all kinds.
Human papillomavirus, according to the results of studies in the body is 70-90% of people of reproductive age. But in most cases the immunity of the person on their own struggles with the disease, and more latent form of the virus does not develop. This mainly occurs at a young age (under 30 years), and then to expel the virus from the body takes up to 2 years. In later years the human body is much more difficult to cope with the virus.
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Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis and treatment of HPV in women has been a gynecologist. It starts with the explanation of diagnosis complaints (even subclinical form in women may be complaints of discomfort during sexual intercourse), and general inspection. Women will be mandatory inspection of the cervix and vagina with the help of mirrors, cytology or Pap Paponikolau (Pap test) - analysis of cells taken from the cervix and cervical canal, colposcopy - a visual inspection of the epithelium of the cervix using a special device - a colposcope. Suspicion of cancer can take a piece of tissue or cervical warts fragment biopsy (diagnostics), as it reveals the oncology early on.
One of the most reliable methods of investigation is a PCR-diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction) - DNA diagnosis of the virus on tumorigenicity. But the method has a serious drawback - the possible false positive result.
To date, the most accurate method of diagnosis can be called Digene-test, which allows not only to detect the virus, but also to determine its DNA belonging and degree of malignancy.
In our time, the combination of Digene-test and the Pap test is a diagnostic standard for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the cervix in women.
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Since our time was not yet established drugs, the effect of which could bring the virus from the human body, modern treatment is aimed at the removal of clinical illness. It includes 3 stages: the destruction papillomatoznyh foci (destructive method), immunological treatment, restorative therapy.
Destructive methods. Depending on what kind of disease is caused by a virus, different and medical tactics. The main methods of treatment: physical (cryo, laser, electrotherapy, radiowave surgery), surgical and chemical.
Immunological treatment involves stimulation of cellular immunity by antiviral agents, and agents for stimulating general immune humans. These drugs include interferons, amiksin, izoprinozin, podophyllin, tsikloferon, neovir, lilyupid, immunomaks, Gepon and others. It should be noted that self-medication is not allowed. Any drug should be prescribed by a doctor.
Because no medication may be noted ozone therapy (the use of ozone solutions to stimulate the immune system).
A positive result from the use of this group of agents is not achieved in all people. And none of the methods of medical treatment does not guarantee a complete cure of the disease.
Restorative therapy. These include vitamin therapy, sedatives (stress have a negative effect on the immune system), restorative therapy, the normalization of metabolism.
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Since in most cases the disease is sexually transmitted, you should avoid unprotected intercourse. However, the condom does not give you 100% protection (because it can not cover the entire area of affected skin), although it will significantly reduce the risk of infection. Limit the number of casual sexual encounters.
The only 100% method of preventing the disease is sexual intercourse with one partner and mutual fidelity throughout life.
In order to prevent cervical cancer and severe dysplasia in women caused by the HPV vaccines designed. According to Health clinically proven that the vaccine protects against several types of pappilomavirusa that can cause cervical cancer. According to studies, most infected women in the first 3 years from the onset of sexual activity, and the vaccine is most effective if it is done before the onset of sexual activity. In this connection, as a rule, it is prescribed in advance, in 12-13 years.
In Russia today, there are two vaccines against the virus pappilomy person: Cervarix and Gardasil. The latter protects more of several types of viruses that can cause genital warts, as well as against viruses responsible for the occurrence of cancer of the penis in men. The course consists of a triple vaccination scheme 0-1-6 months. We introduce the vaccine into the deltoid muscle of the shoulder. Cervarix is used only for women 10-25 years old. Gardasil is also administered to men. The cost of vaccinations at the beginning of 2014 about 5 000 rubles for 1 dose. Of course, you decide, it is expensive or not, whether to vaccinate or not. But, according to official data, in Russia every day from cervical cancer die 18 women under the age of 40 years.