Orchid Room is a fairly capricious plant. But this fact does not prevent the flower growers to grow it. Yes, sometimes they are mistaken, confused all the intricacies of caring for tropical beauty, but as they say - "patience and a little effort." This statement could not be better reveals the principles of growing orchids. And if you decide to fill up club of this plant, be prepared for a variety of difficulties.
In this article we will try to help the beginner gardeners, and will pay attention to the most important problems that the orchids - root rot. If time does not take action to eliminate these troubles, the plant gets sick and dies. Why suffer from the roots? Can I save an orchid? If you want to get answers to these questions, carefully read our tips and recommendations.
The causes of the problem
Insufficient light and high humidity
The structure of the root system of orchids is rather complicated. Epiphytic plants have no root hairs through which the flower gets moisture. The top layer of the root called VELAM. It consists of hollow cells forming multiple layers. Water comes here through the capillaries and can be pumped from a single layer of cells to another, until it reaches the next, is actively involved in the process - exoderm.
Hence, water moves toward the middle of the root, and then the top - to the leaves. And in order to realize the transition from water to VELAM exoderm require special conditions, namely - specific lighting. In short, the brighter the sunlight, the more the plant consumes water.
Most often face the problem of decay of the roots can be in the period from November to March. It was at this time in our region, there is a clear lack of sunlight: it rains, snow, and the day is too short. And at home orchid almost never lacking in the sun.
So, when the sunlight is not enough, the water remains in the upper layer and is just waiting for an opportunity. If the roots are in a well-ventilated substrate, then some of the moisture to evaporate naturally, but still a part still remains and can cause decay.
Fungal diseases of the root system
The fungi, parasites often attack the roots of the orchid is. All of them are not dangerous as long as the plant is healthy. But as soon as the flower begins to experience lack of sunlight and excess moisture - there is a push to fungal attack.
Decayed layer (VELAM) creates an ideal breeding ground for fungi, and within a few hours they will be enough to start to eat away at the root system. When the roots are completely damaged, fungi are accepted by the stem and leaves of the plant. It is important to prevent the proliferation of fungal infection and early treatment, otherwise it will be impossible to save the orchid.
Sealing the substrate
None of the substrate can not always provide the necessary plant substances. Over time, it loses its main property - breathability. Once the soil is compacted, the roots of orchids are not getting enough oxygen. And it (even with good lighting) can cause decay, because the air is necessary for the promotion of water.
The seal substrate may also occur due to excessive growth of algae and irrigating into soil. Sometimes it is promoted by living in the substrate pests that can eat away at the bark, thus contributing to soil compaction. In this case, save the orchid will only change.
Excess fertilizers and mechanical damage
Orchids roots are very sensitive to fertilizers, especially potash and phosphate salts. And if you use too concentrated feeding root system receives severe burns and can not properly fulfill its function. To save the orchid, cancel and transplant fertilizer plant in fresh soil.
The roots may be damaged and the transplant plants. It is enough to make a small cut or break off purposefully damaged area - he is no longer able to perform its function and gradually rots. The danger is that the rot with time spread over all the roots. The result - the death and the death of the plant root.
What to do?
How to save the orchid when root rot? Check that your plants have a problem with the root system is very easy. Firstly, it is not firmly held in the ground. Secondly, the leaves of the orchid become flabby and begin to turn yellow and eventually fade completely. Look at your plant - is there even one of these symptoms? Just one yes to understand - the plant may die.
But do not worry ahead of time, you can save the orchid. The main thing is to act immediately. The plant is necessary to get out of the pot and rinse thoroughly root system, simultaneously removing all the rotten and damaged roots. At this point you may be faced with another problem: how to distinguish the living from the dead roots?
Rotten roots of orchids to touch slimy and hollow. If they push the fluid flow and exposed core of the root, like a thin thread. Damaged areas are darker shade - from brown to black. Live roots - solid and dense to the touch, regardless of color. In a dry state, they have a light green or a silver color tone. The roots of old plants may have a light brown color.
If you find that struck only part of the root, you just need to cut the rotten plot to healthy tissue. Place the cut is required to be disinfected (such as activated charcoal, or fill handle any preservatives that do not contain alcohol). Iodine or Zelenka is better not to use, because these drugs are too dried roots. And because we need to save the orchid, but not completely destroy it.
If you find damage to the roots only at the base, it is likely, that the "work" of fungal infection. But in this case, you can save the orchid. It is necessary to completely remove the affected root and for the prevention of plant soak in a solution of any fungicide for 15-20 minutes.
Further action will depend on whether the plants were living roots. If so - a flower in a pot is recommended to transplant small diameter and put in a warm and bright place (but not in direct sunlight). Watering the plant must be at least a complete drying of the substrate.
How to save the orchid if no living roots
If the living roots of the plants you will not find - this is not a reason to give up. Save orchid in this case is still possible, though quite difficult. Initially, you need to prepare the plant: cut all the rot and remove all of the dead.
Thereafter, the flower is placed in a special container with water (plastic, glass or ceramic). Important to the vessel did not have holes. For example, you can use a regular glass jar and place in a plant, pour warm filtered water (so as to cover only the part of the flower, where he once had roots) and leave in a bright place. To save the orchid, choose a room where the temperature is 25-27 degrees.
The water should be changed daily (use filtered and heat) plant - well dried. To save the orchid, try to avoid contact of the leaves with water. Otherwise, another problem - mold in the form of dry spots. By the way, the process can accelerate the appearance of roots of glucose added to the water in the form of sugar or honey (the rate of 1 teaspoon to 1 liter of water).
That way you can save the orchid. Duration of resuscitation will depend on the state in which the plant was originally and the conditions in which it grows. The emergence of new roots and maybe 3 weeks, and six months later. The exact date is difficult to call. But the successfully chosen lighting, the faster will save the orchid.
Repot the plant in the soil can be when the roots reach 3-4 cm in length. At first, the diameter of the pot should be very small, so the soil can dry out after a good watering. If the flower is kept unstable, you need to fix it. Try to gently wrap the thread plant, as if tying it to the pot. Or, plug the stick into the ground and secure the position of orchids. When it is well established (2-3 weeks), the support can be removed.
That's it. Now that you know how to save the orchid, if it is damaged root system. The main thing is to adjust the relationship between irrigation and lighting, and let these issues bypass your beautiful party.
Aphids on Kalanchoe
Scale insects and Coccidae
Why Kalanchoe leaves are falling?
Other diseases kalanchoe
Almost all of the disease in Kalanchoe appear due to violation of conditions of detention. It should be noted that this plant likes diffused light and moderate watering. Granting him the necessary care, and you will achieve the proper development and flowering. But if the plant started to hurt, it leaves covered with spots, and the colors and the trunk you find small insects - an urgent need to take action. Let's try to get rid of "green doctor" of the problems. In this article we will explain what pests can affect kalanchoe and how they can be combated.
Aphids on Kalanchoe
Aphids - the most dangerous enemy of Kalanchoe. It appears mainly in the spring. If you do not urgently take action to rid, aphids can occupy and neighboring plants, resulting in harm to all your colors. If you have found on the leaves and stem of Kalanchoe small insects green or black, you know, your plant is suffering from aphids.
She takes Juice Kalanchoe and poisons his own constant injections of poison. But that's not all - of the affected leaves and stem are covered by an adhesive that does not flower "breathe." Most often, this insect can be detected on the young shoots or on the inflorescences.
Signs of aphids
It stimulates the emergence of aphids frequent use of nitrogenous fertilizers. Already it noticed that beefy colors aphid reproduces very quickly. To get to the house on aphids can be re-purchased plants or even cut bouquets. Therefore, it is important to all the new colors to withstand the so-called quarantine zone, to put it simply - in the other room.
At the initial stage of infection is difficult to notice any signs of aphids. The insects themselves are rather small and, given that the aphids to settle on the reverse side of the sheet, it is quite noticeable. You can discover the colony as it grows - by clearly unhealthy appearance of the plant. It becomes dirty and deformed. The leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, the buds do not blossom, and the available flowers fall. The scary thing is that the aphid carries more than 100 types of viruses and its liquid sugar allocation becomes a breeding ground for fungi.
How to get rid of aphids?
The most radical method is the cutting and burning of affected areas them. The remaining plants are treated appropriately insecticide for indoor plants. Repeated treatment once a week for a month.
From harmless drugs can recommend green potassium soap. It must be diluted in water (1 liter will need 20 grams of soap) and wash it with a solution of the plant, the soil pre-wrapped in polyethylene. If the drug is difficult to get, you can use soap, it is also detrimental to the aphids, though to a lesser extent.
Scale insects and Coccidae
Scale insects belong to the suborder coccid and are insects with a long two-millimeter Taurus, which is closed on top of the wax guard. Females are much larger than males and have no wings or legs. They sit motionless, covering an egg. Plants infected with scale insects, covered with a kind of plaque accumulation of insects.
The leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, slowing growth kalanchoe, flowering stops. Status plant deteriorates because of the additional destruction of black fungus that breed in the sticky secretion produced by scale insects. Hold pests mainly on the underside of the leaves. Mobility can only young larvae and adults still.
For the prevention of plant diseases must be regularly and carefully inspected. And in the late winter and early spring make sure that Kalanchoe is in a well-ventilated area. If the air temperature allows, often spray the plants with water - scale insects do not like a moist environment.
Ways to combat scale insects
Insects need to be collected from the leaves, then wash with soapy water flower. To scale insects easily removed, their pre-treated with alcohol. Special insecticides to combat scale insects do not, so you can use any preparation intended for indoor plants.
You can deal with pests and folk remedies - regularly (3-4 times a week) wipe the plant cotton wool soaked in vodka or diluted alcohol. Remove scale insects with an old toothbrush. You can also wash the plant extract of garlic. In a mortar pound 5-6 cloves of garlic and pour a glass of water. Pushing the resulting mixture in a dark place for several hours, it was filtered and sprayed plant.
Why Kalanchoe leaves are falling?
All florist wants to kalanchoe is always feast for the eyes with green leaves. But it happens that the plant stem is pulled, and the lower leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off. Such behavior suggests the wrong light - it just a little sunlight. Sometimes this trouble occurs after flowering growth stops, the flower begins to lose its leaves. All this is happening at an exhaustion of Kalanchoe. He urgently needs a transplant or a good feeding.
The leaves die off in the cold season. This is due to its proximity to the central heating. Most likely, the plant stands on the windowsill near the battery, and the air around it is too dry. Move the flower into the room with a lower temperature. The optimal at this time of year, the temperature is about 13-15 degrees, while Kalanchoe perezimuet without loss of green mass. The main thing is that at low temperatures there was excess moisture, otherwise the plant will have to treat mildew, which appears as a black or brown spots.
In general, caring for Kalanchoe, important time to do pruning of old shoots, then it will please you for a long time with its beautiful shape and abundant flowering.
Other diseases kalanchoe
Symptoms of the disease are dead brown stains in places of branching Kalanchoe. Provoke the rot by many factors, such as excessive watering or poor ventilation. Chance of excess fertilizers in the soil or the temperature is too high maintenance. Upon detection of this disease stop watering and allow the plant to a partial shift of the soil. In the future, while Kalanchoe should be watered fungicides.
Symptoms of the disease: the leaves on plants can detect specific spots with white coating of fungus. Depending on the development of the disease leaves die. The danger is that the fungus that causes powdery mildew, quietly through the air and can infect neighboring plants. The disease develops in the dry air and elevated temperature. To combat needs regular watering (but not often!) And spraying fungicides.
Accompanied by the formation on the aerial parts of the plant moist gray spots. If no action is taken, the spots grow, turning into a pasty mass, and the plant dies. The fungus that causes the disease persists in the soil for another two years. For its activation is required excessive moisture, lack of lighting and poor ventilation. In identifying the disease an urgent need to change the conditions of detention and to take care of sufficient illumination and replacement of soil. A handle as plant systemic fungicides.
As you can see, all the diseases inherent kalanchoe, treatable. Most importantly, time to discover them and take appropriate action.