Strawberries like everything. This fragrant berry leaves no one indifferent. Through sensual color, wonderful taste and shape that resembles a heart, strawberries and strawberry are popular for hundreds of years all over the world. Strawberry Harvest very berry. If desired, and proper care plantation owner can collect from one hectare to thirty tons of strawberries per season. Summer residents - not the planters, but they can grow a good crop of strawberries on your site to ensure that in the season his family a delicious dessert. Yes, and stock up for the winter jam and compote of aromatic berries. To do this, you should know how to grow strawberries.
To harvest did not disappoint, it is necessary to prepare the soil for planting seedlings. It is equally important to correctly place the strawberry plants. The key is the high yield and the use of elite seedlings. Equally important is the right care: Timely weeding and regular treatment of plants from disease and insect pests.
Selecting a location
Significant effect on the correct choice of the crop for growing strawberries. It is best to plant strawberries in the light of their textured soils. If the soil contains large amounts of carbonates, many varieties of strawberry fruit will be bad. Of great importance is the proper soil moisture, as the lack and excess water is equally bad impact on the plants, and therefore the harvest. And if underground water rise to the surface is closer than one meter, we can not grow strawberries.
To grow strawberries is not suitable and areas that have steep slopes because they are flooded in the spring melt water, and dry up in summer. Strawberries need dosage amount of moisture - for it is the best method of drip irrigation. To protect against weed beds should be covered with strawberries mulch - it allows less weed plants. In addition, such a film will prevent dirt from strawberry, if harvest is issued damp weather.
The plot for planting strawberries must be chosen so that it is not blown away in severe winds. During the summer, it will retain moisture in the soil, and in the winter this area will be covered with a uniform layer of snow. In addition, sheltered from the wind section of strawberries will be pollinated by bees. Where on the site is constantly blowing wind, there can be no question of the normal pollination. If there is no natural protection from the wind, around the site of strawberries can be planted on a pair of rows of sunflowers, Jerusalem artichoke, or corn.
Strawberry feels great on almost any soil. She even suitable loam and sandy soils. It is unique, very uncomfortable feeling strawberries on limestone, acidic clay and waterlogged soils. If the site heavy soil, then this can be combated by adding in autumn small doses of phosphogypsum and peat. In addition, the decision related to the peculiarities of the soil problems will help to drip irrigation and mulching black film.
Strawberries grow better in the rotation after crops. Very well grow strawberries where the previous season were planted beans. It is not necessary to plant strawberries in those areas where growing tomatoes or potatoes. There it will be possible to grow no earlier than six years.
In preparation for the planting of strawberries, you should check whether there is a ground beetles and the larvae of the May beetle. Critical content is the presence of pests in the larvae an amount of one to two square meters. Before planting strawberry land must be properly prepared. And this should be done in advance. In order to reduce the acidity of the soil should be a year before planting strawberries produce liming the soil, and to reduce the alkaline - gypsum. If the site is blocked cereal weeds in the fall, you can handle it with herbicide continuous action.
In early October, in order to facilitate the spring digging carried out autumn plowing - to a depth of thirty centimeters. To increase the moisture reserves in the soil in the winter, it is desirable to provide snow retention. In the spring before planting strawberries dig up the ground to 14-16 centimeters.
On a bed, it is planned under the strawberries in the autumn it is recommended to make the manure at the rate of half a ton to one hundred square meters. Or the same amount of humus in the spring. To ensure the ground with enough nutrients and trace elements should adhere to the following guideline standards:
Nitrogen - 0, 8-1 kg per one hundred square meters, half of this provision is made before planting, and the rest is left for additional forage during the growing season - depending on weather conditions and the state of the plant;
phosphorus - 0, 5 kg per one hundred square meters - is brought before planting;
Potassium - 1 kg per one hundred square meters - a half before landing, and the other half during flowering as a solution;
Magnesium - 1 kg per one hundred square meters - is brought before the preparation of the soil.
To obtain high yields of strawberries experts recommend using sorted rehabilitation seedling, luxury or first reproduction. In seedlings must be root collar diameter of not less than six millimeters and a developed root system length of seven to nine centimeters. The best yields provide seedlings, which were dug in late fall from the ground and stored until spring, at low temperature.
Seedlings are planted in early autumn or early spring. In early spring it is planted immediately, as soon as the opportunity to work at the site where the ground is provided with moisture accumulated in winter and spring. Fit a timely manner is very important to ensure that plants are well accustomed. Being late with planting can lead to death most of the seedlings, even if the watering is ensured. In the fall of seedlings planted in the second half of August and the end of September, after the recent good rains or irrigation. Missing from the autumn planting also affects the survival rate of seedlings, and a negative impact on its hardiness, especially in the case of an early winter.
Before planting the seedlings to survive up to five days in the wet and cool. Planting is carried out manually in the moist, but not wet soil. Before planting, the seedling root systems can process a fungicidally insecticidal mixture. The first landing boxes with seedlings should be kept in the shade.
Seedlings should be planted so that the root system is vertical, and the root collar was located at ground level. The long roots should be shortened to eight - ten centimeters. After planting, be sure to water the plants. Once the water is absorbed, mulch the ground around it dry earth or humus to keep the crust was formed.
Caring for strawberries
Strawberry is a moisture-dependent culture, so when it is grown it is not necessary to rely on natural rainfall. Due to lack of moisture during the critical periods of growth even in a year and a half to two weeks strawberry yield is significantly reduced. Therefore, for the cultivation of strawberries better provide any irrigation system, for example, drip irrigation or sprinkler system.
During the first two weeks after planting, the soil should be kept moist - so that the seedlings are well rooted. The next two weeks watering is carried out every two days, depending on the need. Remember that strawberries do not like excessive moisture of the soil. When wetting is reduced resistance against diseases of strawberries, especially against powdery mildew and botrytis, reduced winter hardiness, reduced the formation of generative buds.
It should carry out regular weeding between the rows, because they have to be clean from weeds. You can cover the aisles with straw, and are best used in this case, wheat straw. It helps in the fight against weeds and film. Always want to control the appearance of diseases and pests. Recently it is becoming more popular biological protection. For these purposes entomophagous insects.
In order to strengthen the plant, harvest in the year of planting can not collect. For this first year, flower stalks gently pluck. If the plant is due to pests or diseases begins to fall, it is necessary to repair the strawberry plantations.
Early, medium and medium-late varieties of fruit the whole of June. The degree of maturity and harvest time depends on the type and purpose of berries. For sale or for processing strawberries harvested when it is fully ripen and will get the best taste. If the strawberries have to be transported over great distance, it is collected immature. It is not necessary to collect wet berries, because they can quickly rot.
Collect berries carefully, making sure that they do not hesitated. Without cooling, the strawberries can hranit10-20 hours, depending on the variety. The refrigerated room with a temperature not higher than + 4 ° C, strawberries can be stored up to three days. Collect strawberries better in small baskets for up to three kilograms.
For the release of plants from diseases and pests, as well as to encourage the growth of young leaves after harvest can mow the foliage. Such an event is not mandatory - it is advantageously carried out in the event that a strawberry plot overgrown or badly-maintained.
Mow the leaves on average, three weeks after harvest. Early mowing weakens the plants, which could adversely affect their wintering and yield of the following year. Later mowing can impair renal differentiation. After mowing the leaves should shovel, and then make a comprehensive fight against diseases and pests, to carry out fertilization and cultivation of the soil between the rows.
Care in winter
In the presence of snow cover strawberries safely withstand low winter temperatures. A layer of snow in ten to twenty centimeters able to protect her from the cold, even in the 25-30 ° C. If the snow is not present, at a temperature below -12 ° plant partially freezes first, and then dies. Strong plants withstand cold better. Therefore, do less frost damage, where the site of the well cared for, provided the plant with moisture and fertilizer and protected from pests and diseases. In snowless winters strawberry plantings can be concealed with straw. It should not be a seed, or the mouse can occur that will cause irreparable damage to the plants.
Many people are wondering how to grow strawberries all year round. In the Netherlands, it is grown all year round in greenhouses. Farming is the same as for open ground. The task grower in this case boils down to in order to "wake up" the plant from hibernation, providing it with the necessary conditions for reproduction, growth and fruiting. And then this gorgeous berry will delight you with its unique aroma and delicate flavor at any time of the year, despite the fact that we grow strawberries is not quite the usual way.
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