Tomatoes are one of the most beloved and popular vegetables. In our region can only grow tomatoes seedling method for too long a growing season of this plant, and short enough for a summer. Therefore, the cultivation of tomato seedlings starts with the January-March: in January-February, late-ripening varieties are planted in tomatoes, and in March - Early and mid-season. And if you want to get at his dacha good crop, it is necessary to know how to grow seedlings of tomato.
The seeds of this culture are available at gardening centers, nurseries and specialty stores. Start planting the seeds, you must disinfect the window sill or a place where you grow the seedlings. Because if you were standing on the window sill indoor plants, in order to avoid transmission of diseases seedlings, it is necessary to do.
For seedling containers are ideal tape which is easy to use, store and transport. But if they do not, then the tomato seedling in a container suitable for disposable paper and plastic cups, plastic bottles, which should be cut off the top, and in general, any plastic container of food. They all need to make drainage holes, through which it will follow when watering excess water. Choose a container so that they are not turning over steadily stood on a pallet. As a suitable baking trays, conventional plastic trays, fotokyuvety and so on.
Preparation of seeds
Tomato seeds before sowing should be checked for germination, while sorting them and removing the smallest. Then they have to prepare for the difficult period of growth for the plant in a small container on the windows, temperature extremes, and to various diseases. Such training speeds up germination. Training includes warming up, decontamination and disinfection or sprouting, germination and hardening.
Warm seeds can be on radiators, under a lamp or in the oven for two to three days. Be sure to expose the seed disinfection. Please note that such manipulations must be done only with seeds purchased from other farmers. Garden centers sell already decontaminated and warmed seeds.
To prevent seed-borne diseases, they are disinfected by dipping a change in fabric bags in a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. It should be cherry color. The solution can burn the brown color seeds. They were kept in solution for fifteen minutes and then washed with water. Large and small seeds should be planted separately.
To grow healthy seedlings of tomato, you need a good nutritious soil - porous, soft, breathable and moisture. It needs to be treated to get rid of weeds, pests and diseases. This is done by heating or steaming.
For steaming the bottom of the bucket put the broad metal jar with holes punched in it. Banks should be such that it was closed the entire bottom. The bucket is poured little water and poured into the jar soil. Then a bucket covered with a lid and put on the fire, proparivaya earth forty minutes. Steaming can be replaced by the Strait of soil mix in pots or boxes, and it should be a hot solution of potassium permanganate. After this treatment, the soil is heavily compacted and should be thoroughly dry and loosen.
Soil mixture for the tomato seedlings, you can do it yourself. This can take 75% peat, 20% of humus 5% and mullein. Another composition: 45% of rotted compost or manure humus, sod land 50% and 5% of mullein. You can make and a mixture of 75% peat and 20% horse manure without straw, and 5% of mullein.
Mullen put in pots for the density. When growing seedlings in cups, boxes or clay pots do not use mullein. To reduce the acidity of the substrate was added to it fly ash, lime or chalk - where a handful of a bucket. Do not forget the fertilizer. When growing seedlings in the nutrient mixture are added 15-20 grams of ammonium nitrate, 4-6 grams of potassium chloride and superphosphate 20-25 g per bucket of soil mixture. In addition, it is possible to grow a tomato seedlings in peat pellets, which are sold ready in garden centers.
For many gardeners sensitive issue, when to sow the seeds of the tomato seedlings. Definitely can not answer it, because there is to consider everything: variety, climatic region, periods of frost and so on. In principle, it is generally possible to do a few times per season. But on the term transplanting into the ground will depend on the period of sowing the seeds - the later you need to plant the seedlings, the later you need to sow seeds. If you have a greenhouse or a greenhouse area, then, of course, and planted the seeds early, because then the seedlings will grow under the protection of the soil before planting.
Gradually, you gain their own experience, when it is better to sow the seeds, writing several years sowing seeds, time to germination, then the appearance of the first leaves and early flowering. For approximate calculations we can cite the following figures: from the moment when the first shoots, and before flowering in the early grades must be 50-60 days. Before the appearance of seedlings themselves held 7-10 days plus about a week to adapt after picking seedlings. Therefore, if you plan to plant the seedlings in the greenhouse film greenhouse or in early June, then sow the seeds of the tomato seedlings should be roughly until mid-late March. Cottagers in the northern regions will have to take into account also the length of daylight hours in April and May. There seedling grows and develops faster.
The optimal temperature range for growing seedlings should be:
- 14-18 ° C - on a sunny day;
- 12-16 ° C - in cloudy;
- 10-14 ° C - night.
Double temperature will reduce the need to:
- after the shoots appear for 4-7 days so that they are not very stretched;
- a half or two weeks before Bedding to harden the seedlings.
In the last days before transplanting the temperature of the content at all reduced to the level of outside temperature.
Ready ideal for planting seedlings of early and mid-season varieties of tomatoes has a height of 35-40 centimeters, zatsvetshuyu first hand and developed root system. In order to ensure the first condition, containers for growing seedlings should not be small. Its volume should be 0, 8-1, 5 liters.
Filling pots Soil mixtures, it is required to be sealed near the wall, or in subsequent watering it begins to move away from the walls of the pot, which is very harmful to young roots. They are starting to dry because the water evaporates in this case very quickly. If it happened, it is in these pots to pour ground and tamped it. This should be done during the entire period of growth of seedlings.
It is preferable to cultivate seedlings with sparring. For this seed is first sown in boxes low height of 8-10 centimeters. In box poured ground and allow it to stand for several days, had settled to the ground. Then, in the land of the groove is scheduled every 3-4 centimeters, the depth of which should be 2-3 cm. Smaller grooves 2 cm should not do it, because germination can occur with the recommendations of the seed coat, which is undesirable. In this case, they have to wet the hourly water to cotyledon leaves could lose them. You can remove these "caps" a needle.
The prepared seed furrows laid out in the region 0 5cm apart. Watering the ground in a box can be before planting and after. Then close the container with glass or plastic wrap and place pre-emergence in a warm place where the temperature is not lower than 20-25 ° C.
You can sow the seeds of tomatoes and other means. For this purpose, the prepared capacity at partial height poured ground leveled. Then the seeds spread out and covered with a layer of soil on top of an even thickness and a half or two centimeters, pour on top, then harbor and put in the heat.
When the first one or two true leaves should conduct the pick - seating seedlings in a separate container. When swordplay porch do not pull out of the ground, and the bottom to hook under the roots of a small lump of earth small spatula or spoon. To make it easier to make the land watered so that the soil soaked to the full depth, but this plant did not have time to take advantage of the water.
If the tomato stalks are too stretched, then picks up the cotyledonary leaves break off, allow to dry, and then part of the stem in a spiral placed in a crescent to the first true leaf.
Around planted in a pot shoots soil is compacted and watered with warm water, then put on two or three days in the shade place, especially in these days of sunny weather.
Sometimes, to avoid excessive pulling seedlings can do double picks. First time seated sprouts in small containers up to 200ml, and the second time - in a liter. Each time swordplay lower portion of the stem is placed in the well of a spiral, cutting off a pair of leaves in order to shorten the seedlings. Plants after a double-handling become stockier, and the root system they have developed much better.
After the first seedling container seedlings put into a bright but cool place where daytime temperatures should be 15 ° C, and at night - no more than 11 ° C. This can be a glassed-in balcony or a place at the door of the balcony. Some gardeners even put them on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
Such a procedure is needed seedlings, so they do not strongly stretched. Ate the temperature is higher, then the seedlings rapidly stretched, can develop blackleg. To strengthen the hypocotyl tiny seedlings enough four or five days, and now it is possible to prepare for the next stage - to rearrange in a warm place where the day temperature will be 20-24 ° C at night - 12-15 ° C.
Frequent watering promotes that sprouts strongly drawn. This should be avoided and to ensure that less water evaporates, it is better to reduce the temperature of the contents. For irrigation water need to be defended, but it is better to take the thawed or magnetized. It is sure to warm up. Every two weeks the seedlings watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This solution will not only disinfect the soil and the plant, but also to nourish its manganese and potassium. Seedlings try to water in the morning to night-time there was no moisture.
Keep in mind that the air in apartments with central heating is very dry, which is not good for plants. Therefore, you need not only to water the plants, but also to humidify the surrounding air, which just put a jar of water near the seedlings. For these purposes, you can moisten the air from the sprayer or hang near a wet gauze.
Transplanted in the greenhouse
Somewhere in late April, depending on area of residence seedlings can be placed into a hotbed of biofuel or in a greenhouse. It is perfect for her, and seedlings in this case is literally transformed. It becomes thick, stocky, dark-green with the convergence of interstices. In the greenhouse, the same as the soil is not warmed, the seedlings can be installed on wooden flooring or shelving.
During the cultivation of more than three fertilizing seedlings do not. For this raspikirovat seedlings 8-10 plants enough one glass solution fertilizer, older seedlings same amount poured into four plants. You can water the less concentrated solution, spreading it halfway with water. In this case, the number of feedings a double. However, this option is no worse.
During the growth and development of plants should be continuously observed, noting the changes and quickly taking action. Slowing growth and development is often caused by a lack of the element, excess moisture, cold soil, starting disease or pests.
- If the plants look stunted, the leaves of pale green, small and thin stem, the plant is not enough nitrogen. With an excess of nitrogen as seedlings "zhiruyut": petioles and stem thick and dark green leaves have a large size.
- If the plant is not enough phosphorus, then the leaves appear purple-red color, and on the lower leaves - chlorosis.
- If the plants do not have enough potassium, the edges and tips of the lower leaves turn yellow. In seedlings of tomatoes may then curled down leaves.