This coffee tree in the house - it is not exotic. Many, many growers dare to growing this wonderful plant with unusual fragrant flowers. Not only is the coffee tree just magically blooms, it also breeds, giving even a small, but the real harvest of coffee. However, not all coffees and all kinds of coffee tree can be grown indoors. So that your tree has not grown a giant, taking half of the apartments (and throw a pity!), Let's find out how to grow coffee trees, and the effort and knowledge of you will require the botanical experiment.
In the wild coffee trees - a large shrub or tree, reaching heights of up to eight meters and has about a hundred species. Wild coffee lives in tropical Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. Flowers it is very similar to jasmine flowers (but much larger) and possess at least a pleasant aroma. The fruits of decorative coffee no less than its flowers, they look like red or blue-black cherries slightly elongated. Cultivated this plant (in order to obtain grains) in tropical America, Africa and Asia.
At room conditions the coffee tree is able to grow up to 4-5 meters (so far as the ceiling height). However, it is so intensive growth can be adjusted by cutting to the desired size and holding irrepressible desire for heaven. In addition, for indoor flower has withdrawn special dwarf varieties of coffee tree. A known and common types of home coffee tree is suitable Arabian coffee (Arabica), Brazilian and Liberian.
Caring for an adult tree is not difficult, but it is growing some difficulties. This process is, so to say, is not the easiest. Typically, coffee trees are grown from seed or from cuttings. How to do it?
Coffee tree from cuttings
For this method of growing a new plant sprig picked from the middle of the crown of the adult fruit trees. Better if it will be a branch of the previous growth (they formed the kidney) with two pairs of leaves. If you plant a sapling it, the tree that grew out of it will begin early in bloom and bear fruit.
Sharing planting prepared as follows:
- The stalks are cut, making the indentation of the bottom pair of leaves is about two to three centimeters.
- On the lower part of the cutting of the sewing needle makes several longitudinal scratches, which contributes to the rapid formation of roots.
- Sharing (only the lower part) is placed hour for three hours in a solution of one and a half liters of water and one-fourth of tablets of IAA (plant growth stimulator, plant hormone). Or half a liter of warm water and 25 milligrams IBA acid. In such a solution stalk placed about 15 hours.
For rooting cuttings will suit any soil, but it should be breathable and well retain moisture. The most suitable substrate for rooting cuttings of coffee tree is considered to be a mixture of one part peat (or sphagnum bog) and one part perlite (expanded building sand). Pour into a container substrate is left in the backwash condition and shed a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Stalk immersed vertically into the ground by two, two and a half centimeters, and a pair of lower leaf as digged into the soil. With this method of landing can be expected to almost completely rooting because it leaves in place the growth of additional roots are formed. After that, once planted sapling watered potassium permanganate, cover with a plastic bag or plastic bottle, making holes in them for ventilation.
Such mini-parnichok will maintain a suitable temperature for rooting, which ideally should be as high as 25-27 degrees. The higher the temperature, those roots will give graft, but at a temperature above 32 degrees the effect is reversed. Rooting period lasts for about 37-40 days, during which the future of a tree it is necessary to spray and protect from direct sunlight.
Once the handle has its first top rostovaja kidney - he gave the roots. And after the first of a new pair of leaves can be transplanted seedling has a permanent place. However, it should be done very carefully, because the root system of the tree, baby is still quite weak. For transplant suitable mixture of four parts sod peat two parts and one part of sand and a pot with a diameter of 10-12 cm.
On the bottom of the pot is placed drainage (about 1 cm) and poured prepared soil. Sapling coffee tree planted very carefully, placing roots on a small hill rolled in, straightened them and covered with earth. Then the tree watered abundantly.
The benefits of the coffee tree propagation by cuttings include:
- maintaining all the properties of the parent tree;
- early flowering (even while rooting);
- full fruition early (already at the annual tree).
The disadvantage of this method can be considered just what grown from cuttings coffee tree care requires complicated by the necessity of forming the crown.
Coffee tree from seeds
For the cultivation of the coffee tree seeds are suitable only fully ripened fruits of coffee (you can rip directly from the tree). It is believed that the berries with two Bobkov germinate better. Coffee beans are very capricious and rapidly lose viability, so prepare them for planting should be immediate. For this seed was purified from "peel" (the outer shell) and first washed with water, then soaked for half an hour in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
By the way, the soil for planting coffee beans also need to prepare in advance. It should be loose, slightly acidic and have time to settle (or present) before planting in two weeks. For planting bean is considered the most optimal soil mixture of two parts of humus, one part of sand and one part peat. Experienced growers recommend that prepared the ground steamed or calcined in the oven.
Each coffee seed planted in a separate pot to a depth of one centimeter. Grain put into the ground convex side up: so they are easier to grow. Pasazhennoe seed (as is the case with cuttings) watered and covered with a jar or plastic bottle.
For germination of seeds need temperatures not lower than nineteen and no more than twenty-four degrees. In such circumstances, about a month and a half, the first leaves appear, protected seed coat. Before they were freed from this shell, sprouts should be kept in a moist (very wet) environments. But after their full release can (and must) begin to teach this delicate coffee germ to normal room air. To this end, the bank is removed from the pot first, for a moment, and then gradually increase the time of airing.
Young green sprout necessarily drevesnet starts turning into a little more, but now the coffee tree. This process can be intimidating beginners "coffee plantation", so it looks like some disease. First, on a green stalk appear unsightly brown spots, and the stem looks like begins to dry up. He can actually dry up almost half. Then the spots gradually enlarge and coalesce, becoming a "bark" of the coffee tree trunk.
In the first year of cultivation only grows trunk, and the crown of the tree is not formed. And in the second year begin to grow skeletal branches of the crown. To make the tree splendor these branches must be trimmed slightly. And in the future has no crown for the formation of such a tree is not required. Incidentally, no problems with the formation of a crown can be attributed to one of the main advantages of the tree grown from seeds. And it is quite easy and cheap. The lack of reproduction by seed - it later fruiting.
Therefore, knowing how to grow a coffee tree from seed or cuttings, choose the way that you like. And let this experience will help growing and fruitful (literally). And there, staring, and his own grown coffee will be brewed. Well, in order to surprise the guests but to amuse own vanity.