Trees in the apple seed stocks can live and bear fruit 60 - 80, and sometimes even 100 years. Even dwarf apple trees on paradizkah live 30 -40 years. In connection with this choice of a garden, soil preparation, selection of varieties, the quality of planting material, and so on. N. Are essential. "A good start - half the battle," says the proverb. Rather, bad "start" failed, at least in one any - any respect, preparation for laying the garden will be a negative impact on its growth, health and productivity for decades.
Selecting a location
When choosing a location for the garden must first take into account the nature of the terrain, soil properties and subsoil, the depth of the ground water, in some cases -availability finished natural protection in the form of wood or shelter belts.
A reliable indication of the suitability of the location for the successful culture of apple can serve vegetation nearby oak forests, particularly with inclusions of wild apple and pear orchards of good or even individual apple trees.
The relief has a tremendous, often decisive influence on the growth, health, productivity and durability of the fruit - berry plants, including apple orchards. Influence of terrain is extremely diverse: it depends on the degree of illumination of the area, temperature, humidity, soil and air, the distance to the ground water, protection from the wind. By appropriate selection of the relief elements can be moved like the plot of 200 - 300 km to the south or to the north.
The best coverage and the greatest amount of heat produced are characterized by slopes of the southern areas
. The amount of heat they can be even more than, speeding and causing the beginning of the growing season in late winter burns trunks and bases of skeletal branches
. The negative side of the slopes is also a greater water evaporation from the soil surface and therefore reduced its moisture
. In this connection in the entire southern region of fruit growing in the south of the middle zone, in arid and semiarid areas of southern slopes less suitable for apple orchards than the northern
. Recent get less sun and heat, to have more accumulated snow evaporation from the soil surface is smaller and humidity it anymore
. The northern, north - western and western slopes are better for apple trees in a number of cases in the central median strip
. Only in the more northern areas of the middle band the advantage goes to the slopes of the southern exposure
On the slopes of the hills in all directions, and there is a constant flow of cold heavy air down (air drainage). With this cold winter is always somewhat weaker than in the plains, especially adjacent to the hills, from which roll down, accumulating at a lower places, cold air masses; and spring frosts occur much less frequently and reach a lower power.
Winter damage to fruit trees on the hills and slopes are much less frequent and weaker than in the plains. Special hazards bring frost fruit trees at the foot of the hills and closed depressions where the cold air forms a "swamp of cold."
According to the conducted monitoring the temperature difference on the hills and in the valley in the winter on clear windless or weak wind of the night reached 6 °. At a wind of more than 4 meters per second through the air mixing them, the temperature difference on different parts of the relief is smoothed.
Air drainage on the hills and slopes of the benefits not only in winter and spring, and during the growing season, providing a permanent replacement for the depleted carbon dioxide and improving the fresh air that the air power of trees.
Different parts of the uneven slopes. For example, the lower slopes are better supplied with moisture than the hills and tops. In this connection, for apple orchards, especially in the more arid areas of the southern middle band, you should choose the middle or lower parts of the slopes, in the central regions more suitable to be the upper and middle parts of the slopes.
Extremely friendly gardens are found in Voronezh and Belgorod regions extensive beams with a large catchment area. On the slopes of beams at a shallow depth down the sandy strata, lie on clays, ground water, in some places even go to the surface as springs. Here, the very nature of organized irrigation -podzemny best view. In spite of the danger, it would seem, the proximity of groundwater, they did not harm the trees, because thanks to the constant movement down saturated air. It also mitigates the harmful effects of groundwater close to the floodplains with permeable soils.
Dangerous Garden stagnant groundwater
. When choosing a place for garden care should be taken that they are not closer than 2 - 2, 5 m from the surface. This distance may be reduced to 1, 5 m in the southern arid areas and on light soils. The level of groundwater in the area is determined by Stoyanov their wells or narrow hole punching a metallic glass to a depth of 2 - 3 m.
Do not lay the gardens on the plains, especially those at the foot of the hills where trees are more likely to suffer from frost, and mornings, and on calcareous soils of southern black soil areas still developing here from chlorosis.
It is not suitable for apple orchard area and lowered depression as the most Frost. The area, full of small depressions "saucers" in the central areas of the middle band is also not suitable for the garden as a result of excess moisture and soil oglesniya happening here. At the same time in the steppe zone of chernozem area median strip, where the fate of the garden solves primarily water, saucers provided the permeability of the soil and subsoil are not harmful and due to better moisture regime they even provide good growth and high yield gardens.
This is clearly evidenced by our observation in the garden variety trials Rossoshanskij fruits and berries Experimental Station, located on the terrace pripoymennyh. Trees Bellefleur - Gudulu aged 14 - 17 years were given for 4 years following total yield of the tree in the center saucer -1098 kg, on the edge of the saucer -486 kg stump saucer-from 109 to 270 kg. Beside growing trees Bellefleur red gave the same years following total yield of the tree in the center saucer -573 kg, on the edge of the saucer -473 kg, is saucer-from 245 to 289 kg.
Due to acute shortage of water in the southern semi-arid areas of the middle band a good place for apple orchards are the floodplains of rivers and streams, especially their pripoymennyh terraces. A survey in the Voronezh and Belgorod regions of gardens, located in the floodplains of the Don, Chopra, Bityug, Quiet Pines, Oseredy and others
showed that such pripoymennyh high terraces, often flooded hollow podami in the short term, they are the most favorable for apple trees, especially if they are provided with adequate air drainage. However, be aware that the gardens, located on the lower parts of the relief, more likely to suffer from winter damage, spring frosts and the development of fungal diseases. In this regard, the pripoymennyh gardens should be planted and the most winter-hardy varieties resistant to scab. Only in the valleys of large rivers - the Don, the Volga, Oka - the danger of spring frosts return softened vast expanse of water spills.
In the chernozem zone for apple orchard all the differences are quite suitable humus (a powerful, plain, degraded), and especially the gray forest soils, which are degraded black soil.
It is more difficult to choose the way in the non-chernozem zone with podzolic and sandy soils. Here, the most valuable are the same gray forest, sod glubokodernovye and poorly podzolized soils, usually located on the slopes, and contain a significant amount of humus. Not suitable for apple trees are light sandy soils, have minimal ability to absorb water and mineral salts.
It is not suitable for apple will strongly podzolized soil, usually occupying the plains, wetlands, salt marshes and supersaturated carbonates. The last are usually located at the foot of the chalk hills and cause chlorosis of apple.
A good diagnostic feature of soil is chlorination them weed bindweed, bears the name of the local birch.
Apple has a deep root system, so when choosing a place for the garden should be familiar also with the properties of the subsoil. Better for apple considered highly permeable to water, air and roots moist and friable loam and loess structure. They are the roots of the extra phosphorus and potassium nutrition. Not suitable sandy subsoil, poor in nutrients and passed on inaccessible to roots deep water and mineral salt solutions.
The choice of locations and soil for gardens and part of the collective gardens is limited. However, even a little usable soil can gradually cultivate and make highly productive.
Organization of the territory
Once the most suitable site for laying the garden is planned, it is necessary to proceed with its preparation. Organization of the territory is applied to the borders of the area, sadozaschitnyh vetrolomnyh bands and lines, with the placement of blocks on their grades, and bypass. mezhkvartalnyh roads, the central farm, and so on. n.
Previously should be drawn up plan of the site with detailed calculations of the number and the cost of planting material of fruit and forest trees, machining costs, draft animals and manpower needed to carry out all the planned works. The plan, drawn up by year, called promising.
The most important aspect of the plan is the determination of the quarters. The higher their value, the more facilitated by the mechanization of the most labor-intensive work. On the other hand, an excessive increase in the area of neighborhoods in pursuit of mechanization will inevitably lead to a reduction in the protective action opushechnyh and Windbreaks.
Generally, the better the climatic conditions of the area, the more blocks can be and vice versa. The size of quarters and is also linked to the size of the garden. In commodity Gardens area of over 100 hectares of the value blocks can be increased to 15 - 20 hectares, with a garden area of 50 to 100 hectares - 8 - 15 hectares.
In small gardens area neighborhoods taken an average of about 5 hectares. Note, however, that the gardens of less than 50 hectares are not profitable at all, as difficult mechanization of work, protection and realization
The most convenient for mechanization rectangular blocks with a ratio of 2: 1 or 3: 1. For example, in the area of 12 ha quarter longest side it should be 480 or 600 m, respectively, short of 250 and 200 m. The elongated side blocks must be placed across the main slope; the blue -poperek direction of the prevailing winds in the area.
Each apple orchard should be summer, autumn and winter varieties, the number one or the other depends on the soil - climatic conditions of the area, as well as economic. The average amount of winter varieties ranged from 70 to 85%; autumn - from 10 to 20 year old - from 5 to 10%, but this ratio can vary within wide limits. For example, in suburban gardens can be slightly increased percentage malotransportabelnyh summer varieties, and in the gardens, far from the markets, should prevail winter varieties.
When selecting varieties of apple for a joint landing on the same quarter of the major commodity and gardens need to be sufficient to comply strictly with the following rules:
- You can not put on the same quarter of varieties of different ripening, such as summer grade Papirovka with winter - Reinette gold Kursk and so on. N. Joint planting of apple varieties with different ripening times complicates gardening, pest control, protection and harvesting.
- It is impossible to plant as early appearance of fruit varieties with vzaimoopyliteley pozdneplodnymi example Pepin Lithuanian Vorgulem to Voronezh: the first begins to bear fruit at 3 - 4 th year after planting, the second - 15 -18 th year. In addition, the Lithuanian Pepin, like all the early appearance of fruit varieties, is less durable than pozdneplodnye varieties, in particular Vargul Voronezh. When combined these two planting varieties Pepin Lithuanian begin to bloom sooner and remain at 10 - 15 years without a pollinator, which means that almost no harvest. After 30 - 40 years old Lithuanian Pepin will die, and more durable Vargul Voronezh, in turn, will be left without a pollinator.
- You can not take as vzaimoopyliteley varieties with very different periods of flowering. However, our observations, but only a few varieties of apple trees bloom so late that they can "get away" from the pollination of other varieties, and they are not included in the standard assortments middle band (Butsko, Antonivka Ulyanischeva). All standard grades of the middle band of flowering timing is good enough and the same overlap.
- You can not be limited to the planting of only two each quarter, even though the best in the given conditions, varieties of apple. The fact that the apple is still far outlived the frequency of flowering and fruiting. It may therefore happen that when one landed on the quarter varieties will bloom, the second is just a "rest", vzaimoopylenie becomes impossible and the harvest will be void. To avoid this, each quarter the summer, autumn and winter varieties planted three, and even better on the four varieties, alternating with each other in some places. Consequently, large commodity gardens should be planted at least 9 - 12 apple varieties.
Number of rows of each variety in the film can range from 2 to 6. If more rows of deteriorating conditions vzaimoopyleniya. Pelee economy decides to have some - any sort of major, leading, he is given the full number of rows (5 - 6) and secondary grades - vzaimoopylitelyam - 2 series.
The road network in the territory of the garden consists of bypass roads, walking along the internal border sadozaschitnyh opushek and mezhkvartalnyh, usually located on both sides of Windbreaks. Width mezhkvartalnyh roads with curbs should be 6 m, roundabout - 8 m.
Breakdown of plot
Composed before the plan is necessary to move to the area with sadozaschitnymi stripes, blocks, manor road network. Large commodity gardens breaks surveyor having accurate tools. Small areas can be broken down by the garden team using Ecker and surveying tape or roulette, but with a steel tape. In the latter case the block is divided on the already prepared soil.
First of all scheduled base line, measuring out the tape from the extreme number of already planted or intended only sadozaschitnoy strip in several places on the 12 - 15 and, and set on this line several veshek. Landmarks must be for good visibility and smooth white. The height of 2 m. Then put in the starting corner of the first quarter Ecker, directing a pair of diopters proveshennoy main line. In this case, the second pair of diopters indicate a right angle, towards which surveyors stake placed at a distance equal to the width of the target block; this distance is precisely metered mite or a tape measure.
Further along the main line of the planned length of the metered quarter, transferred here Ecker and use it to build again a right angle, and are deferring but the width direction of the quarter. When connecting the measured points box closes. If the length of the fourth, closing the sides is exactly equal to the length of the quarter, the breakdown is done right, if it differs significantly from the target, it is necessary to check the construction of right angles.
It should be noted that homemade Ecker often gives an error in the construction of corners. A more accurate way of constructing them on the ground is the following. On the main line on both sides of milestones indicating the angle of the quarter, tied at 10 and two pegs. By applying one end of the tape, or twenty meters surveying roulette first to one and then to another peg, free to draw a second end of the arc on the Earth to their meeting. Milestone, set at the intersection of the arcs indicate the direction of the short side of the first quarter. The same operation doing a corner on the second quarter.
For intra breakdown of seats is necessary to prepare in advance a metal cord length from 120 to 160 meters with labels at distances corresponding to the intended distance between the trees.
It is also necessary to prepare in advance planting pegs (about 30 cm) by the number of seats and the number of dual control.
Work on the broken cable using planting goes very quickly and accurately. Gradually pulling the cord on the long sides of the block, are arranged on the pegs set in a series of distances. The width of the quarter is usually longer than the string, so the same distance lay still on the midline of the quarter, connecting the middle of the short sides. Further, applying the cord to the pegs, set against labels planting pegs.