Stomach ache. This kind of pain - perhaps the most widespread in the world. Causes abdominal pain, there is a huge number of the most diverse, ranging from the banal indigestion, ending with serious health problems, such as acute appendicitis in children or adults. The main thing doctors warn - in any case be self-medicate yourself and try to get rid of abdominal pain. When abdominal pain you should immediately call the "ambulance" or self-refer for help to the nearest medical facility.
Needless to say that the man in the abdomen is a lot of vital organs, as, indeed, throughout the human body. That is why the cause of abdominal pain serious enough concern and attention from the medical profession. Abdominal pain can be "a trifle", even if the stomach hurts because of the banal flatulence or frustration of a chair, you need to take action as quickly as possible to minimize the negative impact on overall health. And if the reason for the occurrence of pain was a - that a serious disease that requires surgery, the delay can often cost a sick person most dear, he has - his life.
When abdominal pain often people make a few typical common mistakes. Here's why they are dangerous not only for health, but also for life:
- Admission painkillers. Often people seek as soon as possible to get rid of pain in the abdomen and then take a variety of painkillers. However, to do so is not recommended, because the doctors, in the absence of pain will not be able to adequately assess the condition and the extent of the danger, not only for health, but for the life of the sick person. As a result, your doctor may just not recognize serious illness, such as appendicitis, peritonitis, perforated ulcers and other complications.
- Applying heat to the abdomen - a warm heating pad or diaper. When the pain in the abdomen or in any case not try to warm the stomach. In a number of specific diseases that action can lead to very dire consequences. In contrast, if a sick person is experiencing considerable pain, a much stronger effect will the cold attached to the abdomen. For this fit any improvised means, for example, a pack of ravioli or frozen chicken found in the freezer. Wrap them in two layers of any fabric and attach to the place that hurts the most, and see a doctor immediately.
- Ignoring the pain. Unfortunately, our hope for "maybe blow over" often plays with us a very bad jokes. It is not necessary to hope that the abdominal pain will disappear by itself - it also increases the chances that will be missed the presence of serious diseases. It is much wiser to consult a doctor and hear that the cause for much concern there than miss of this serious disease.
So, as mentioned above, the causes of pain in the abdomen, there are so many. To tell all at once is not necessary - without special medical education ordinary man in the street is difficult enough on their own to figure out all the details of various diseases. Therefore, this article will talk only about the most common disease - appendicitis.
Appendicitis is the most common disease of the abdominal cavity, requiring urgent surgery doctors - surgeons. According to statistics, to 15 years in the percentage of children who are removed appendicitis, no more than 15 processes, the people who have reached 20 years, that figure has increased to 23%, and to 30 years reaches 41%. As is clear from the foregoing, the chance encounter with a disease such as appendicitis, there is almost everyone.
Appendicitis - a very interesting disease. On the one hand, it is not too hard - at the time of the onset of illness until recovery is necessary only 7 days in uncomplicated disease. And on the other - non-interference surgeons will inevitably lead to the death - the death of a sick person. That is why it is so important for everyone to know the symptoms of this disease, so as not to leave it unattended and in time, seek medical attention.
First, consider what is appendicitis. Appendicitis - is an inflammatory process involving the appendix cecum. There are several reasons that can cause this is the inflammation:
- Activation of pathogenic microorganisms, resulting in mechanical obstruction of the appendix lumen of the rectum. This cause of appendicitis is most common in children.
- In adults blockage clearance process often causes hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles.
- No less often cause blockage of the appendix becomes fecal stones. This type of appendicitis is most common in people who are faced with constant chronic constipation.
- A little bit less, but still - still, there are cases of blockage of the appendix or foreign objects, parasites or tumors. As a result of their exposure to the mechanical there is an inflammation of the mucosa and, as a consequence, the accumulation of mucus and occlusion of the lumen of the appendix.
The symptoms of appendicitis
As already mentioned, in order to timely detect the presence of appendicitis, it is necessary to know the symptoms
. Acute appendicitis has different symptoms
. One of the main symptoms, of course, is the presence of human pain
. At the beginning of the pain of the disease has no clear localization, the sick person can not accurately show exactly where he had a stomach ache
. But after about 6 - 7 hours pain concentrated in well-defined region - generally in the right iliac abdomen
. However, doctors do not recommend the patient themselves never guided only by the place of localization of pain
. This is due to the fact that the human anatomy is such that the appendix is often stored in different locations of the abdominal cavity and, consequently, localization of pain as different people may be different
. For example, in the classical arrangement of the appendix in the right lower abdomen, the person feels pain in the right iliac region, and if the location of the process of high - stomach ache almost under the ribs
. There are also cases where the appendix is positioned such that the bent back slightly
. In such cases, the pain is localized in the lower back
In addition to pain in the sick person is often a feeling of nausea and vomiting. Usually vomiting is not exhausting character - no more than two - three episodes per hour. Urge to vomit saved and if the sick person has not eaten anything. In case due to inflammation of the appendix in a human patient in the intestines begins to accumulate a large amount of liquid, it may cause liquid stool (diarrhea) in a human patient.
Visit the language of the sick person, who is suspected appendicitis, the doctor may provide some - some information. At the beginning of the disease the language of the sick person is wet, but very quickly it becomes dryish and covered with white bloom. However, this symptom alone can not serve as the basis for the diagnosis of this disease, since it is not an independent clinical sign, but only goes along with other symptoms.
Also has a lot to tell the doctor and the situation of the sick person. As a rule, it takes so-called "forced" position. "Forced" position called the situation in which a person experiences the least pain and the pain of change which immediately causes a person to come back. When appendicitis patient man often is in a prone position on the right side or on the back. The slightest change in position can cause extremely intense pain that will make the sick person lie still again.
Any physical action, even such seemingly insignificant as laughing or coughing and sneezing often in a person ill with appendicitis, causes severe pain to force a sick man to stop these unwanted actions. Little changed and the algorithm of the normal breathing process - the lower square of the abdominal wall during inhalation is largely behind its entire surface.
Often the relatives of the sick person, pick up a little superficial information from a variety of sources, try to make yourself palpation, flexion and extension of a sick person to his feet. All this is done in an attempt to diagnose the disease. However, this can not be done - no special skills can be called careless movement perforation (breaking) of the appendix.
The body temperature of a person ill with appendicitis, often slightly increased to 37, 5 - 38 degrees. However, the lack of temperature can not be warranted to be free of appendicitis - sometimes the disease can also occur without a fever. Temperature for physicians in the diagnosis of appendicitis is also the only one of the symptoms of various clinical manifestations of inflammation of the appendix.
Very important, perhaps decisive role in the issue of diagnosis of inflammation of the appendix is a detailed analysis of the blood. As a rule, in the presence of a human patient increased content of leukocytes and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, coupled with the pain, we can speak of an inflammation of the appendix. From the urinary system as certain changes occur - in the presence of appendicitis in a human patient in his urine laboratory testing, generally detects the presence of protein, which in a healthy person should be easy.
Often a sick person himself or his relatives require doctors of radiological research. Nowadays, this type of diagnosis is almost never used. On the X-ray can be seen only in adults fecal stone if it is corked clearance and was the cause of inflammation of the appendix. However, the fecal stone can not clog the appendix, and perhaps overlooked - inflamed appendix will not because of fecal stones. But as the picture itself inflammation, doctors can not see, this method of diagnosis is simple - simply not relevant.
The most suitable for diagnostic imaging of inflammation of the appendix use the method of ultrasound. With it, the diagnosis can be almost one hundred percent probability. In that case, if the cause of pain in humans is not connected with an inflammation of the appendix, it just will not be seen. But in that case, if the appendix is inflamed, it will be rendered in the form of a tube, about 5 mm. Around the process clearly visible accumulation of fluid, typical appendicitis.
Another, the most modern means of diagnosis of the disease is computed tomography. This method provides a diagnostic image is not only the inflammation of the appendix, but all the modified tissue peritoneum and intestines, caused by inflammation. This method is good to all, except one - the equipment for computed tomography is very, very expensive. And not all health care facilities, even the big city, not to mention the small, can afford to purchase it. That is why the CT scan is not as widespread for the diagnosis of appendicitis, as the other methods.
Sometimes, in severe cases, and unexplained, physicians for the proper diagnosis of productions, recourse to this method of research as laparoscopy. The essence of laparoscopy is as follows - the sick person receives a certain anesthesia, after which the surgeon makes a small incision in the abdominal wall. Through this incision into the abdominal cavity of the human introduced laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin probe ending camcorder. This method of diagnosis is 100% reliable, as the surgeon sees with his own eyes what is happening in the abdomen of his patient.
Unlike appendicitis from other diseases
Despite the fact that the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in our time, there is no difficulty, differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis still deserves some attention. Although an experienced doctor with little or no work virtually "by eye" accurately and easily diagnose a sick human appendicitis in all its manifestations. So, there are a number of different diseases, from which you must correctly distinguish between inflammation of the appendix. The following are only the most common ones:
- Urolithiasis, especially renal colic. In this case, it is important to conduct laboratory examination of urine of the sick person.
- Acute adnexitis. As a rule, if the presence of appendicitis is suspected in a woman must be conducted gynecological examination of the patient.
- Perforated stomach ulcer. Often, in order to avoid the disease, doctors are forced to resort to pre-laparoscopy.
- Right-sided pneumonia. To exclude it is necessary to make the sick person X-ray picture of the lungs, and then you can rule out or confirm the presence of pneumonia.
Do not worry about this, because as a doctor - a surgeon to establish the correct diagnosis, with 95% probability.
Types of appendicitis
Doctors have identified a number of varieties of appendicitis according to various criteria. The first thing you notice is the degree of intensity of the inflammation of the appendix colon:
- Acute catarrhal appendicitis
Acute catarrhal appendicitis - is the initial stage of inflammation of the appendix. Handling at this stage of the disease is the most simple and effective. However, unfortunately, often the form of catarrhal appendicitis patients simply do not pay much attention as pronounced pain or weakly expressed or absent.
Simple appendicitis occurs in a classic case of the disease course. It accounts for 70% of all cases of appendicitis.
- The destructive appendicitis
In that case, if the sick person faced with the destructive forms of appendicitis, all the symptoms he expressed much brighter than in the simple form of the disease. He is much more pronounced pain, temperature is also significantly higher numbers found in simple appendicitis. But the morphological changes occurring in the appendix, often can not match those in the ordinary appendicitis.
Predict the development of destructive appendicitis is simply impossible - it is no wonder it is called "destructive." But the development of a simple appendectomy is very predictable. In the event that a person with a simple form of appendicitis for some - any reason not promptly seek medical help, or else the disease was not diagnosed in a timely manner, complications of acute appendicitis are inevitable:
- Acute appendicitis abscess
When phlegmonous appendicitis in the form of a sick person to a large extent enhanced the intensity of pain, the body temperature rises. Himself appendix begins to fill with pus, causing the walls of the appendix begin to appear ulcer. Ulcers cause quite severe inflammation is not only the process but also all the surrounding tissues, such as abdominal wall muscles. This appendix is almost always can be felt during normal palpation.
- Acute gangrenous appendicitis
If at this stage of the sick person does not receive surgery, appendicitis abscess form blends in gangrenous, the most severe, form. At this stage, because of the pus-filled appendix inflammatory process is subjected to the entire peritoneal cavity, without exception. However, even though it may at first seem strange, sick people say that bother them pain disappear. However, there is nothing strange - it is because of what is happening irrevocable destruction of all cells of the appendix.