Sooner or later, most people come to the idea that they want the child. But, unfortunately, sometimes a couple can not get pregnant, despite all the efforts and tricks. As the disappointing statistics, approximately 20% of couples are faced with the problem of infertility. Alas, the reproductive function in modern humans is becoming more and more imperfect is faltering. And that is why such a thing as artificial insemination does not surprise anyone. But let us look at this delicate matter in order.
Do you know in which cases we can talk about infertility? Very often, women start to panic after the second - third month of unsuccessful attempts. However, doctors say that the true infertility is diagnosed only after a year of unsuccessful attempts to conceive. In some cases, this period can be still longer.
Indications for IVF
It is important to see a doctor and find out the cause of infertility. In most cases, infertility can be treated successfully less radical ways than IVF. However, approximately 30% of all cases of infertility alternative therapies are inefficient when there are problems such as:
Problems with the fallopian tubes
In that case, if the adhesions are very strong, can develop partial or complete obstruction of the fallopian tubes. And in some cases - for example, in cases of ectopic pregnancy - the fallopian tubes may be absent altogether. Bear a child from a physiological point of view, a woman may, but pregnant - no.
The problem may lurk not only in the female body, but also in the male. Doctors often diagnose decrease in sperm motility and a decrease in their number, and at times their absence.
Immunological factor infertility
And in these cases, it is worth remembering this method, as in vitro fertilization. In some cases, IVF is becoming the only option for couples to become parents.
Terms for IVF
In vitro fertilization - the procedure is very serious, so it is necessary to observe a number of prerequisites:
The consent of the spouses
To doctors performed in vitro fertilization, the consent of both spouses.
No less important is the overall health of the spouses. At the time of IVF neither men nor women should not have any acute or chronic diseases of the genital tract, as well as general systemic diseases, is a contraindication to IVF.
Status uterus and ovaries
At the time of IVF in women should not be abnormalities in the uterus and tumors - even benign - in the ovaries.
That is why before the IVF couple necessarily has to pass an extended examination. In no case do not ignore this need, since otherwise the chances of a successful pregnancy at times reduced, but the risk of all sorts of complications, in contrast, increases.
Examination of the woman, as a rule, includes:
Oral consultation and the subsequent examination of a gynecologist.
Physician consultation and, if necessary,
Ultrasound examination of the internal organs, including the pelvic organs.
Colposcopy - study of the state of the cervix.
A number of analyzes: cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A and B, herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia. In addition, you will need a bacteriological examination cervical mucus, a swab from the vagina.
However, a medical examination must undergo not only a woman but a man. For him, the survey is as follows:
Advice and a full medical examination, andrologist.
Ultrasound examination of the internal organs.
Tests for infectious diseases, including diseases and sexually transmitted infections.
Bacteriological and biochemical studies of sperm.
Typically, such testing does not take too much time, so do not put it off until later, begin to take its time.
What is IVF?
So, what is in vitro fertilization? In people, this procedure is known as artificial insemination. As you might guess from the name, fertilization takes place outside the mother's body. And only a few days the fertilized egg is transferred into the uterus. But let's look at the procedure of IVF more detail. After all, no matter what method of in vitro fertilization you choose, the sequence of actions will be the same in all cases.
Stimulation of ovulation
Typically, during the menstrual cycle matures only one egg. But for a successful IVF it one is not enough. Therefore, in order to mature several eggs on the third day of the cycle a woman begins to take a special hormonal drug that stimulates the maturation of this thing.
The process of oocyte maturation is closely monitored by ultrasound - monitored by its dimensions. In addition, constantly kept under control and hormonal state - level of progesterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone. Controlled by state and mucus secreted by cervical canal.
As a rule, to the egg has reached the required size, you need about 10 days. And only after that the woman receives hormone, called human chorionic gonadotropin. It is necessary for final maturation of oocytes.
So, mature egg - they should immediately remove the body of a woman. This is done as follows: - to the ultrasonic sensor is attached to a special needle punctures, the whole structure gently inserted into the vagina of women. Puncture needle punctured follicles largest size of which is extracted and matured egg.
Too many women are planning to resort to IVF, afraid of possible pain. In fact, during this procedure the woman is under light anesthesia. This anesthetic effect on the nervous system only superficially and no harm to the health of women brings.
What is needed for fertilization? Of course, viable sperm. They can get as ejaculate, and directly from the epididymis or of the eggs, if the sperm in the ejaculate too little. Moreover, the sperm can be used immediately upon receipt, and through a very long time. To this sperm frozen in a special way. After thawing the ability of sperm to fertilize saved - they can fertilize the egg, even after ten years.
The selection of biological material
In order for in vitro fertilization is successful, it needs only fully mature eggs and sperm - they are selected under the microscope. Interestingly enough sperm being tested - they are placed in a liquid medium. Most sperm immediately "set sail", and sedentary and weaknesses remain in place.
To insemination has occurred, it is necessary to combine the egg and sperm. Typically, this occurs in vitro. This occurs as follows: - the egg cup with a special nutrient medium previously placed in the incubator for 5 - 6 hours. Thereafter, in a cup placed previously prepared sperm, which must fertilize the egg.
According to the technology one egg takes about 100,000 sperm. They literally stuck to the egg and begin to produce a special enzyme that promotes the penetration of the sperm inside. Of course, aspire to it without exception sperm, but it turns out it's only one. As soon as he enters the egg, the rest of the access is closed.
And as soon as the sperm and egg united IVF occurred. However, fertilization - it is only the third part of the success. The cells immediately begin to share - approximately 72 hours the embryo reaches the required size, which means that it must be carried in the body of the future mother.
To transfer the embryos into the uterus using a special catheter. The procedure is completely painless, so the woman should not be afraid of it. As a general rule, to increase the chances of a successful outcome of IVF doctors are placed in the uterus several embryos.
After embryo transfer, the woman appointed special preparations that contribute to pregnancy and the proper development of the embryo. After about 14 days after the transfer of the ovum in the uterus held control over the level in the blood levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin, if necessary appointed correctional therapy. But after three weeks the ovum could be considered during the ultrasound.
Other facts about IVF
So the general idea of what artificial insemination, you got it. But we must keep in mind some other facts about IVF.
Preservation of embryos
In that case, after transfer to the uterine cavity behind some embryos freezing methods available modern medicine, allow to keep them as long as is necessary to parents. At first glance it may seem that this procedure is excessive, but it is not. Alas, not every pregnancy after IVF gets saved the first time. And in that case, if need be repeated IVF, thanks to frozen embryos a woman does not have to be re-hormone therapy and ovarian puncture.
The effectiveness of IVF
As a rule, one of the first questions to ask your doctor the parents - is the question of what is the likelihood of pregnancy resulting from IVF. As a rule, very much depends on the individual characteristics of women - an average of 20-40%. At first glance, these figures may seem very low.
But do not forget that the pregnancy was the result of artificial insemination, has a number of its features. For example, very often the problem with hormonal not allow the body to a woman to bear a child on their own. Of course, in all cases, doctors prescribe a special woman to hormone therapy aimed at maintaining pregnancy. However, an increased risk of spontaneous abortion still remains.
Do not forget that after the artificial insemination several times more common in multiple pregnancies. This happens if all the embryos placed in the uterus take root. Of course, the joy of the occurrence of two or even three children would be enormous. However, any multiple pregnancy is always accompanied by an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and / or premature birth.
Therefore, a pregnant woman should be with extreme care and attention to their health. First, a timely visit a gynecologist and obey all his instructions and recommendations. Secondly, be prepared for what may need to be hospitalized - in any case, do not abandon it.
Of course, IVF does not give 100% guarantee of a healthy baby. But the likelihood that you will become happy parents, increases significantly. Therefore, in any case, do not miss your chance to hear the long-awaited words "Mom" and "Dad"!
We recommend that read: Depression during pregnancy