How quickly time flies! It seems that recently, you have brought the precious bundle from the hospital where your baby was sleeping peacefully. The child was growing, changing, evolving. And as we would have liked to avoid it, but there comes a time when the last baby begins to prepare for the entry into adulthood.
Our children come into puberty, and with it come and difficulties of adolescence. In children, not only the physical condition but there is a change in attitude and mind. Their body is growing rapidly, there occur processes amazing - there is puberty; changing mentality, worldview. The nervous system is overloaded teenager all these changes.
Children become irritable, and often aggressive. Sometimes parents are lost and do not understand how to deal with a teenager. To help them, you must first sort out what is a transitional age, and what is happening with our children while growing up.
Transitional age - this is a period of time a teenager, when he comes puberty, conjugate with rapid growth and physical development. All the internal organs and systems in this period are finally formed. At this time there is an intensive process of developing a number of hormones, which is the key to all the physiological changes.
Awkward age boys begin a year or two later than puberty in girls. Already in the fifth-sixth grade becomes visible the difference between boys and girls - we all remember the time when in one class studied guys that looked more like a child, and girls who have already started to turn into girls, and looked already quite adults.
Awkward age teenagers has no clear time limits. And especially puberty each child manifested in different ways. Because each organism has its own individual rhythm and characteristics of the processes. Therefore, it is impossible to say exactly how many lasts puberty. But mostly physicians and psychologists refer to the period from 10-11 years to 15-17 years. With the caveat that these figures vary in downward and upward.
From the very beginning of puberty in adolescents begin to appear, and even sex differences in the nature of the flow and the difference in the age when puberty begins and when it ends. As already mentioned, the girls maturing begins a couple of years earlier than boys goes wrong badly and ends quickly. In boys, puberty lasts four or five years and passes much more active.
Awkward age psychology and medicine admit rather difficult stage in the process of growing a baby. And, no matter how many lasted a transitional age, it can be divided into three phases.
The first phase - a period of training the body and mind for the upcoming major changes. The second phase - the actual puberty in children. More called pubertal. The third phase - the post-transitional (or post-pubertal) age, during which there is the completion of the physiological and psychological formation. The first phase of puberty in children can be roughly equated to early adolescence, but the post-transition years can be attributed to pore youth. Time, the end of puberty, is characterized by the growing interest in the opposite sex, the emerging and growing sexual activity.
Now evening walks are interesting because of the visits and balls and skipping ropes forgotten. Girls puberty at the mirror now spend most of their free time. It is not only pimples puberty brings with it changes in appearance and delight and frighten young girls. The boys, too, have a hard time because of their perception of the world is subjected to psychological tests. They are not willing to start their own adult life, but also to return to childhood, too, is impossible.
At puberty the child's psychology is changing rapidly, and one it is very difficult to navigate the changing reality for him. The task of adults - tell your grown child, how to go through puberty unscathed. Therefore it is necessary to know the symptoms of puberty, and be psychologically prepared for the fact that the difficulties of adolescence in varying degrees overtake each family.
Symptoms of puberty becomes a series of changes in appearance. Moreover, these changes in boys and girls occur in different ways. Therefore, consider the signs of puberty in boys and signs of puberty in girls, we will separately.
The signs of puberty in boys are the following physiological changes:
- about 10-11 years start to increase in the size of the testicles and penis;
- 11-12 years begin to grow pubic hair, there is pigmentation of the scrotum;
- in 12-13 years there is further growth of the penis and testicles and pubic hair grow longer and thicker;
- Transition age 14 brings the "break-up" voice. Breaking voting is due to the increase in the size of the vocal cords and throat muscles and cartilage. Voice coarsens, becomes more "manly." The final formation of votes takes place in about two years;
- axillary hair appear in areas above the upper lip appears first down. Gradually hair covered his hands, feet, groin, face. Finally scalp formed by the time the transition is over the age;
- at the same age - 13-14 years old - begins to flourish muscles. The boy's shoulders become wider, and they themselves are becoming taller and stronger.
- Almost every teenage boy's wet dreams occur - so called spontaneous ejaculation during sleep. This is absolutely normal, and it usually appears between 10 to 14-16 years.
Physiological signs of puberty in girls are age-related changes, such as:
- 8-10 years are beginning to expand the pelvis, markedly rounded hips and buttocks;
- 9-10 years, enhanced pigmentation of the areola, it swells and begins to speak;
- 10-11 years of pubic and underarm hair appear first. Mammary glands continue to grow and develop;
- in the 11-12 years can come menstruation, although often it begins later, in 13-14 years;
- in 15-16 years the menstrual cycle has stabilized, monthly become permanent and regular. Continued growth of pubic hair and armpits.
And boys and girls during puberty, a period of intensive growth. Peak growth falls by about 12 years and can reach 9-10 centimeters a year. Girls growth stops in 16-18 years, young men continue to grow until about 20-22 years.
At puberty the majority of adolescent pimples and black spots on the face, back and chest. Acne puberty, as well as black spots and acne appear due to changes in skin condition that occurs on background of hormonal changes.
But not only change the appearance of the child say that the transition has come of age. There are symptoms and other plan - changing the behavior of the child and even his character. More yesterday affectionate and obedient child suddenly becomes a hypochondriac, touchy, rude, categorical. He has a habit of arguing with you on any occasion.
Emotional instability and maximalism, stubbornness and brutality, often turning into rudeness - is also a feature of the age, which is caused by hormonal storms in the body of a teenager. Adolescence brings changes throughout, including in the health of adolescents. And psychological problems can not plan to provide additional load on the physical condition of the child. The main difficulties of adolescence lies in this interweaving of physiological and psychological problems, which are a complete surprise to most adolescents. Entering the path of growing up, he does not even know what challenges await him in the future! And very often the body of a teenager begins to falter.
Diseases of puberty may be temporary. The most common ailments are caused by the fact that some organs and systems do not have time to grow as fast as he grows teenager, and are therefore not fully cope with their functions. In the future, they are "catching up" in the growth of his master, and the condition of normal teenager. The most common diseases of puberty is acne, dystonia and teenage depression.
Dystonia - a violation of the autonomic nervous system, which is the regulator of the body's internal balance. Such violations occur due to hormonal processes in the body, as well as because of the psycho-emotional overload that affect adolescents. The symptoms of this disease are heart palpitations, dizziness, sweating, low blood pressure, coldness, abdominal pain of unknown origin, fatigue, irritability. Typically, these effects disappear when passed puberty.
Acne in adolescence appear in almost all teenagers - both boys and girls. They may appear on the face, back, chest, at least - and in other parts of the body. And the reason for their appearance is the increased production of sebum, along with obstruction of the excretory ducts of the sebaceous glands.
Teenage acne - is temporary. It is only valid in adolescence and early adulthood, and after the completion of puberty usually goes alone. But in particularly serious cases of acne marks as scars may remain for a lifetime. In such cases, you must seek treatment by a dermatologist. In addition to treatment, it is also necessary constant cleansing of the skin from pollution and excessive fat. A balanced diet will help to accelerate the fight against acne in adolescence.
Transient age girls causing additional suffering not only because of increased acne and greasy hair, but also due to the fact that with the conventional capacity in this age of the skeleton and increase in muscle mass is increased adipose tissue. For a girl - a teenager it can be a real tragedy. At this time they begin to attach great importance to their appearance, and here - the extra weight!
Fearing that become too thick, the girls begin to ruthlessly harass themselves with diets, and often does begin to refuse food. When the growth rate typical of that age, it is dangerous for at least the fact that even if in the future will return to normal body weight, the weight of the bone will not be able to recover. And a terrible danger - anorexia. This terrible disease, which gives a lot of complications and causes irreparable damage to the body of a teenager. Therefore, during puberty a girl her parents should try to form a belief that a good figure should be achieved not by hunger (because thin cow - yet a gazelle!), And with the help of sports.
The main problems of puberty in girls are that they are very excessive demands on themselves. They think that they themselves do not look worse than the others, and they did not wear such a fashion as they would like. Formation of a complex imaginary shortcomings - especially puberty girls.
In this age of great importance is attached to appearance, because right now the relations of friendship with the boys changed to falling in love. First love is most often unrequited, and gives an extra reason to look for the cause of unhappiness in the alleged shortcomings. In addition, the growing desire for competition between the same age, which often leads to painful conflicts.
Girls are more sensitive perceive all the difficulties they face. They begin to feel like an adult, and they want to show everyone what they are independent, but at the same time, they do not always have opportunities to do so. And they have to step over their own pride, recourse to an adult, and this is one of the most common causes of mental suffering girl.
Parents who have problems with puberty in girls, should not consider them ridiculous, absurd and insignificant. It is necessary to listen to his daughter, to help her unobtrusive advice tactfully to guide her to the right decision. In no case should not lecture or force her to do anything. And it is very important to remember - when it is an awkward age your daughter, all the comments about her appearance, you should do as delicately as possible!
Problems of puberty in boys often start at exactly the time he begins to feel an increase in their physical strength and sexual activity. A feature of puberty in boys may be called constant feeling of the need to prove to the world and, most importantly, himself, that he is a grown man, not a little boy. The need to constantly prove their manhood to bring deprive him of peace of mind and balance. At this time, as a rule, radically changing the character of the boy - a teenager.
Growing up, the boy expects more privileged rights as adults, but begins to be confused in adult values and again feels "non-self", "little" boy. It scares him, and fear leads to aggression and nervousness. He is trying to change something, but do not know how to do the right thing; He is trying to act grown-up, but does not understand the measure of responsibility for their "adult" behavior. Trying to understand the contradictions of adulthood and its internal position, the teenager becomes closed, stubborn, self-conscious, or, on the contrary, aggressive and totally unmanageable.
If a teenager growing into a close-knit family with empathetic understanding of his parents, as a rule, his parents manage to help the boy understand and express their masculinity. For example, you can inspire him playing sports or other activity where he could develop their physical strength and in the eyes of others look quite manly. If the young man does not feel the understanding on the part of adults, and also sees that the parents do not wait for him any achievement in these cases teens assert themselves more often with the help of idleness, of hooliganism, the emergence of addictions.
As a teenager, for any reason, there is a strong conflict with his father, then, oddly enough, most of the problems of puberty in boys face their mothers. If the boy from childhood afraid of the father or, on the contrary, had not been able to talk to him, then his anger and resentment he will pluck primarily on the mother. In such a situation it would be best to go with the guy at the psychologist, who has helped to sort out their feelings this young prosecutor, "all sins."
In addition, often, realizing their need for competition, and they are constantly around trying to be better than their fathers - in sports, in relationships with people, including those with the opposite sex - everywhere they are trying to prove his superiority over his father. And if you do it wrong, and his father was unable to since childhood to build a friendly relationship with her son, it is the mother becomes the object of aggression for splattering. Awkward age guys is a constant desire to emphasize its independence from the mother, from her "calf tenderness." And it is in the transition to adulthood in men appears the spirit of contradiction, which makes do anything to spite his mother: grow hair when she calls for neatness, to get the girl and spend time with her all the time when you have to think about studying, start smoking when Mom talks about how it's bad ...
Everyone knows that it is very difficult with teenagers. But ask yourself this question: Is it easy teen with yourself? Psychology of adolescence is dominated by the tragic views, with a constant feeling of despair. According to sociologists, every tenth adolescent thinks about suicide. And from every fifth can be heard: "So everything is bad, sad and hopeless, that I want to hide in a corner and cry." The psychological crisis experienced puberty adolescents the hardest. Overwhelming feeling of loneliness and despair are terrible for the fragile psyche of a teenager.