Breast cancer. Unfortunately, this phenomenon today is so widespread that it became almost commonplace. And women do not apply to breast cancer with the necessary attention. They believe that they will never touch it. And a very good reason. Disappointing Medical statistics says that the disease affects one in twenty women on the planet. This type of cancer is a leader among his "brothers."
It is considered that the most common breast cancer diagnosed in women older than 50 years. Recently, however, alas, there is a new trend - breast cancer significantly "younger" and affects women after 30 years. As you can see, the outlook is not rosy. What to do? Sit back and hoping you blow this attack? And if not?
That is why doctors advise women to learn more information regarding breast cancer. It's no wonder there is a saying that says that. What forewarned is forearmed. Knowing the reasons for which can develop breast cancer, its symptoms, you will be able to notice a problem. And it is very, very important - because the sooner treatment is started, the better the chances for a full recovery.
The causes of breast cancer
Despite the high level of modern medicine, doctors are unable to identify with certainty what causes the development of malignant tumors of the breast. However, just installed a number of prerequisites, at times increasing the likelihood of breast cancer:
How many times told the world ... And the Ministry of Health warns ... Smoking and drinking alcohol affect the condition of the body negatively. Including trigger breast cancer. So try as soon as possible to get rid of these bad habits.
Injury to the chest
Mammary gland - the substance is very delicate. And the trauma may lead to malignancy. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the chest. As, however, and all the rest of the body.
Doctors there is a clear link between abortion and a woman do the subsequent development of breast cancer. The more abortions - the higher the risk. Especially in the case it has been artificially interrupted very first pregnancy.
We can not lose sight of the fact, and breastfeeding. Those women who fed her baby, much less likely to develop breast cancer. And the longer the breastfeeding, the lower the risk.
Deodorants - deodorants
Today the doctors there is another hypothesis, which states that the development of malignant mammary tumors may develop as a consequence of the systematic application of deodorant antiperspirant.
Disease of the breast
In that case, if the woman is suffering from mastitis, it should be especially attentive to their health. In this disease in the breast begin to form small nodules, reaches its maximum size before menstruation. However, they may disappear on their own immediately after menstruation. And it is these cells that form nodules may transform into malignant. Therefore, treatment of mastitis is essential. Do not look for "maybe" and wait until all by itself will take place. Otherwise, a high risk that you will need to have another treatment - treatment of this insidious disease like breast cancer.
Symptoms of breast cancer
Of course, breast cancer, like any other disease, not symptoms. And it is very important to know these same signs of breast cancer. Knowing the symptoms can be early detection of the problem and seek help from a doctor mammologu.
Seals in the breast
One of the first expression of symptoms of breast cancer - seals. These seals are simple enough to probe even yourself. Of course, fortunately, most of the detected tumors are benign. Of course, fortunately, it's not cancer. In any case, you must immediately seek medical help. In some cases, benign tumors need to be removed. The sooner this is done, the less damage to the body.
Soon after the appearance of the tumor sick woman notes discharge from the nipples. At first they are very small, but the progression of the tumor are becoming more plentiful and abundant. One has to resort to special chest pads.
Highlight color can be very different - clear, purulent, bloody, yellow-green. Shortly after the appearance of secretions on the nipple and begin to form ssadinki wounds. If the problem is not noticed in time and breast cancer took a running form, scrapes turn into extensive ulcerative lesions of not only the nipple but also the rest of the breast skin.
The third sign of breast cancer - it is their modification. It changes not only the color of the skin, but also its structure. When lifting the arms above her head on his chest appear peculiar "dimples". In the most severe cases the skin is similar to orange peel, such as a strong expression of cellulite. And sometimes Yasochka no skin, but the skin itself is wrinkled. Change and outlines the breast - it can be flattened, elongated, or any other form of purchase.
In some instances the teat may also heavily modified - it is pulled into the breast. And the more the defeat, the more it is drawn.
Change the color of the skin
Breast cancer can lead to discoloration of the skin. It can get very different color - from light pink to purple. Note - Change the color of the skin on the breast can occur not only as a result of cancer, but also influenced by other factors. For example, at a reception of a pharmacological formulation. But in any case, the woman should as soon as possible, seek medical help.
In some cases, the cancer can lead to flaking of the skin. Therefore, a similar phenomenon also should not be ignored - always consult your doctor.
The increase in axillary lymph nodes
In almost all cases of malignant tumors leads to swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, with the affected side. Moreover - perhaps even strong swelling of the arm. In fairness, it should be noted that these symptoms are very often in the most ordinary lymphadenitis.
Sooner or later, but women are beginning to appear pain in the affected mammary gland. And the pain can be very, very intense.
If a woman has found at least one of the above symptoms, it should be as soon as possible to see a doctor. Today, doctors quickly and accurately establish the exact diagnosis. In most cases, the alarm is false, and the tumor is benign. But in this case also need treatment.
But even if it turns out that you have breast cancer, do not panic. If the disease is detected at an early stage, a favorable outcome is practically guaranteed. But in the event that the patient seek treatment too late, the treatment will be ineffective and to avoid death will be very difficult.
As mentioned above, sooner or later, signs of breast cancer will be felt. But do not wait until symptoms become too pronounced - in this case the roads every day. The sooner treatment begins, the better for women. It is therefore necessary to adopt simple techniques of self, cope with which the power of every woman.
The first phase of the survey
Lowering his hands, stand before a mirror, fully relax. Take a good look to see if any changes in the size or shape of the breast. As a rule, they are visible to the naked eye even in the earliest stages of the disease - it is virtually impossible to miss.
Then, raise your arms above your head and look, have not changed the outlines of the chest if there are any bulges or depressions, and wrinkled skin. Check for discharge from the nipples. To do this, gently squeeze them. Beware of sharp and rough movements to avoid injury to the nipple.
Second test step
Once you make a visual inspection of the breast, move on to the next step - manual inspection. Raising his hands turn upward, fingers gently palpate the breast cancer. They should have a uniform structure without any seals must be determined. Pay attention to the pain - normally they should not be.
The third stage of testing
This stage is somehow often undeservedly forgotten - and very vain. Raising his hands, a woman must carefully examine the armpits and breasts in the direction from the edge of the nipple. There should be no seals. And palpation should be painless.
In that case, if you find the above symptoms - at least one - immediately contact your doctor, do not "play with fire". After all, at stake is not only your health, but also life.
We have already repeatedly stated that the earlier the disease is detected, the better the chances for a full recovery. And when it is the "before"? Let's see what is the stage of breast cancer:
Zero stage - a non-invasive cancer stage. Malignant tumor is localized exclusively in the breast, without going beyond it. The disease diagnosed at this stage, in all cases can be successfully complete cure. Unfortunately, because of the negligent attitude to their own health, at this stage of the disease the woman go to the doctor very rarely. Although signs of breast cancer can be detected now.
At this stage, the cancer cells start to hit the neighboring mammary gland tissue. Malignant tumor size at this stage is equal to about 2 centimeters. Lymph nodes are not yet affected. Most of all cases, is detected at this stage. The treatment is also quite effective.
The second stage
Cancer cells in addition to the breast and surrounding tissue start hitting those lymph nodes that are located by the same hand. Tumor size - from 2 to 5 centimeters. Lymph nodes are not soldered to each other adjacent tissues.
At the third stage of the cancer itself affected breast, surrounding tissue, lymph nodes are soldered together. Tumor size is greater than 5 centimeters.
This step is the hardest. The tumor begins to spread beyond the chest - supraclavicular lymph nodes, internal mammary lymph nodes, axillary region, the lungs, liver, brain, bone tissue. Tragically, treatment at this stage is almost not effective. Of course, the treatment may prolong life a little sick woman, but completely cure breast cancer is simply impossible.
Diagnosis of the disease
Even if you know all the symptoms of breast cancer to diagnose the disease is not worth it - immediately consult a doctor. The doctor listen carefully to complaints woman learns about family predisposition to various cancers, will hold a manual (manual) breast examination and lymph nodes. If necessary, will be assigned to one of the following methods of inspection:
This x-ray can detect breast cancer even a half or two years before it can make a woman herself and even her doctor. It's safe to say that it is mammography is currently the most reliable method of early diagnosis of breast cancer.
The principle of diagnosis of the disease is extremely simple and 100% infallible. Almost all breast cancers contain a large concentration of calcium salts. These salts are formed by the decomposition of the cells. The picture shows these same clusters as the white dashes are visualized.
However, mammography can be assigned not only for the diagnosis of breast cancer, but also to clarify the stage of the disease. With the help of X-ray studies established the size of the tumor. By the way, and malignant tumors are also easy to install, with the help of mammography.
Ultrasound examination of the breast
Ultrasound examination allows the physician to determine the structure of tumors in the breast, the size of the tumor.
If necessary, after all the above studies the doctor prescribes a biopsy. Biopsy - a small section of the fence of the tumor for subsequent laboratory analysis. We study the cells themselves - they are malignant or a benign, where they - of shares or the milk of the breast ducts. Furthermore, it is determined whether there is no invasion of the surrounding tissue.
Furthermore, it is by means of laboratory studies can not determine whether the cells are sensitive to the influence of growths hormones such as progesterone and estrogen. In that case, if the sensitivity is confirmed, perhaps, the physician will decide upon the hormonal therapy.
Treatment of breast cancer
Once the doctor diagnoses breast cancer, it will select the most appropriate treatment for the woman. In the arsenal of modern medicine are many different ways to beat cancer. Which method is chosen treatment depends on many factors, including the stage of the cancer, type of cancer cells and others. However, the treatment can be divided into three main types:
That surgery is most often used to treat breast cancer. Although the operation is almost always combined with chemotherapy and / or irradiation. However, surgery is also different. The most gentle - is organ-method where only removes the affected part of the breast tumor. And in the advanced stages of the disease is carried mastectomy - complete removal of the affected breast cancers.
When doctors perform a complete removal of the breast, it is usually removed and the lymph nodes in the armpits. After all the nodes in most cases are also affected cancer. Please note - the removal of these lymph nodes are almost always leads to the development of severe swelling of the arm. In order to eliminate this phenomenon, it is necessary to perform special exercises, relieves swelling and reducing the mobility of the hand.
Too many women panic after learning about the need to remove the breast. This is understandable, because the aesthetic aspect is very much suffering. But to date, this deficiency is very easy to fix that - doctors perform reconstructive surgery. For example, the introduction of silicone implants. And the appearance of a woman does not suffer.
In most cases, after surgical removal of a malignant tumor, doctors prescribe a woman radiation therapy. During this therapy produces X-ray irradiation areas of tissues and lymph nodes, next to which is a malignant tumor. This measure is necessary in order to destroy the remnants of the cancer cells that might remain there after the procedure.
Of course, radiation therapy is a serious burden on the already weakened by the woman's body. Quite often there are side effects such as swelling of the breast, redness and peeling of the skin, the appearance of bubbles in the place of exposure. In more rare cases may cause general malaise symptoms - cough, weakness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting.
Do not do without medication - a mandatory appointed by chemotherapy and drugs that neutralize the negative effects of hormones. Medications should only appoint a doctor - that's why we give the names of drugs will not. Self-treatment may lead to irreversible consequences.
Chemotherapy is called a drug therapy of malignant tumors.