Many of us are faced with this situation, when the house was broken mercury thermometer. And everybody understands that it is dangerous. But not many know that the thermometer broke, what to do, how to collect rasteksheysya mercury and, most importantly, how to do more with it. In this article, we will tell you all the most important thing to do if you break a thermometer with mercury and what absolutely can not do. As they say, forewarned, then saved.
To begin with, what still represents itself mercury and what is to be feared in handling it. All of us were taught in school chemistry, and we know that mercury is a metal. But not quite normal. At room temperature, mercury is a heavy silvery-white liquid, and its vapors are extremely dangerous to humans. Steaming is the metal begins at 18 ° C. Incidentally, mercury - is the only metal that is a liquid material under normal conditions.
Today, mercury and its vapors are present in many household and medical appliances. Due to its high toxicity, it is almost completely excluded from the medication. Yet still available thermometers containing mercury. Each of them contains up to two grams of this metal. Until now filled with mercury vapor quartz lamps and mercury fluorescent lamps. And in the old days it was used even in the production of mirrors.
The mercury is dangerous for a man?
The solid form of mercury will not have a significant impact on the human body. But its vapor and soluble compounds should be afraid. In order to avoid unpleasant consequences it is necessary to take appropriate action. Mercury vapors can cause very serious poisoning. They are not definable by conventional senses - no odor and color, but their inhalation leads to shock the nervous system, kidneys, liver and gastrointestinal tract, because the liquid mercury is a highly hazardous chemical.
Demercurization is the process of cleaning items and facilities from sources of mercury vapor and liquid mercury pollution. Simply put - this is the process of collecting drops of mercury, which is the main and most time-consuming in the stonecrop premises of mercury and its vapors.
What do we have to do!
It provides detailed instructions on what to do if you break a thermometer. Before you start collecting the mercury, it is necessary to withdraw from the room all the people who will be involved in cleaning it. First and foremost, it concerns children. Do not forget about pets. Mercury is dangerous for their health. In addition, they can spread droplets of the metal around the room, or what will be the worst of all, swallow it.
Then, if possible, it is necessary to reduce the temperature in the room as mercury begins to evaporate active at 18 degrees. In winter you need to open the window. But keep in mind that the draft should not be allowed. It can be even more rumblings of balls of mercury from each other. In summer, the room temperature can be lowered by the air conditioner. If it is not, it is still for the fresh air you need to open the window completely.
The next step is to protect the people who will collect the mercury. To do this, put on shoe covers on your feet. Of course, they are not present in every house so they can replace conventional plastic bags. It is important to protect and hands. They definitely need to wear rubber gloves. And here it is suitable as those you use for daily cleaning at home and health. And most importantly - do not forget to wear a gauze bandage on the face, which must be moistened with water. This is what you can protect yourself from getting the vapors and tiny particles of mercury in the respiratory tract.
When you are fully prepared themselves for the procedure for collection of mercury need to carefully examine all the objects and surfaces, which could get it drops. Do not forget that the balls of mercury may be quite far from the place of their peals fall and shatter into tiny particles. It is necessary to prepare in advance a flashlight to be used to illuminate all the gaps, cracks and corners.
All collected mercury need to put the prepared jar with water or a solution of potassium permanganate. Remains of a thermometer with mercury and gently slide into the same bank. Water is essential in order to mercury does not evaporated. After it is collected the whole, the bank should close the lid tightly. In no case it should not be placed near a heater!
Starting with the need to collect mercury biggest drops, so they do not split into smaller ones. It is convenient to do with the two sheets of paper. One must take in hand and make him something like the shovel, and the second pododvigat drops to "scoop." Instead of the second sheet of paper you can use a needle or a knitting needle.
Small drops need to carefully connect into one large. So it will be easier to move them to the scoop. Also for mercury collection is convenient to use tissue paper slightly moistened with vegetable oil. Collect it can and using a syringe. And the most convenient to collect small droplets of adhesive tape or plaster surface. After collecting droplets of mercury, they are also placed in a jar of water. It is possible to collect the drops of mercury using a syringe with a needle or a large piece of copper wire - a mercury it will drag itself like a magnet. It is important that copper was not oxidized. This "tool" will be convenient to use when the mercury drops rolled into the slots floor, parquet or under the baseboard.
On the whole collection of spilled mercury can take a lot of time, but it must be done very carefully as uncollected balances in the future could adversely affect your health and the health of your family members. During the collection of mercury Take short breaks every 10-15 minutes, leaving this to the fresh air.
Once all of the mercury is collected, it must be handled very carefully and accurately. The Bank needs to close a tight lid. Then, should be reported to the service of Ministry of Emergency Situations of the current situation and you have to wait for their arrival to transfer the jar with mercury. The collected mercury can also pass on the enterprises that collect waste containing mercury. Before the arrival of officers jar can be stored on the balcony or in the garage, to ensure the safety of its integrity. All the items that you use when cleaning the mercury should be neatly stacked and also transfer service staff.
As we have said, with the collected mercury should be handled very carefully and cautiously. Closed jar with a tight lid mercury as mercury itself, in no case should be disposed of in the trash, garbage disposal or toilet. The consequence of this will be new, it is very difficult removes dirt.
What you can not do?
- Avoid draft in the room where mercury spilled. You run the risk that the peals of balls across the room, and then collect all of them will be much harder.
- Do not throw away the broken thermometer in the garbage disposal. This can lead to contamination of six thousand cubic meters of air in your home.
- In no case can not use a vacuum cleaner to collect the drops of mercury because it is clogged its particles and its continued use would be dangerous to your health. The second reason why you can not use a vacuum cleaner is that it filters will not be able to hold all of the mercury. Complete all that most of the mercury in a spray form back to the room and settles on all surfaces. In such a situation, remove it will be simply impossible. Mercury will remain in the room and will evaporate, and all participants will breathe its poisoned pairs. The same applies to the broom. It also can not be used when cleaning the mercury. Because of its design, you risk to break the mercury into tiny droplets that can not be collected. If a mistake was made, and you collected the mercury with a vacuum cleaner from him, too, need to get rid of, passing MOE or company to collect mercury-containing wastes.
- Categorically unacceptable to throw mercury in the trash or bury it in the ground. This leads to contamination of space because of what people may suffer. Also, you can not pour mercury down the drain. It may settle on the walls of sewer pipes, and there a little "give away" harmful fumes, and pull it out to be extremely difficult. But even if it does not settle to the tubes, then fall into a water reservoir. This, too, can cause the disease to other people or animals. Do not take that responsibility!
- Do not throw carpets or sofas, which hit mercury. They can pick up other people who may be the result of poisoning by mercury vapor. Do not expose anybody danger! There is a solution: either need to produce specialized dry cleaning carpet or couch, or to hand over to the company for the collection of mercury-containing wastes. Even if no one will pick up your discarded items, they still inflict damage to nature as get to the landfill of waste.
The second stage cleaning - chemical demercurization
The second stage of cleaning and clearing the room from the mercury will demercurization chemical. In fact, this process all previous mercury contaminated objects and surfaces by chemical means. By this stage it is to pass only, when will be removed all visible mercury drops. To do this, enough of the funds that are available in almost all the houses, namely chlorine and potassium permanganate.
- Method 1: Use of potassium permanganate
You need to prepare a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. Aude should be dark brown and almost opaque. To this solution, you must add one tablespoon of salt and a tablespoon of any acid. This may be vinegar essence, citric acid or rust remover. Use what you have at home there.
After preparation of the solution, they all treat the contaminated surfaces. Do not forget about the cracks in the floor or between the floor and skirting. Apply the solution should be using a sprayer, brush or brush. Leave the solution was applied on the surface for six hours or eight. As it dries wet the surface of the treated water. Please note that but, from this solution on the treated surfaces will stain that you can not then wash. But this does not mean that it is not necessary to carry out this procedure. Do not forget that we are talking about your health and the health of all members of your family! When the time treat the same surface of the soap-soda solution. Prepare it simple: one liter of water add 50g and 40g of soda soap.
All the above procedure must be repeated more in the next few days. Only a solution of potassium permanganate have no need to maintain six to eight hours, and only about an hour. It is also often recommended to ventilate the room and daily wet cleaning.
- Method 2: Use white and potassium permanganate
In this case, the process will need to take place in two stages. First, the contaminated surface is treated two percent chlorine solution, which should be dissolved in 1 liter of chlorine-containing white water 8l. Bucket for the solution you need to take plastic. The metal for this purpose does not like. Then, using a cloth, sponge or brush to wash the dirty surface with the solution. This solution must stand for 15 minutes and washed with water. This is followed to prepare a solution of potassium permanganate (0, 8%) and their surface treated. You need 8 liters of water add 1 g of potassium permanganate.
If the solution is the first use is contaminated with mercury, do not pour it down the drain. All used cloths and solutions need to be put into a dedicated service with the collected mercury thermometer and residues.
What to do after cleaning the mercury?
Once you have collected all of the mercury contaminated surface and treated with special solutions, you must apply to the Ministry of Emergencies and report the incident to your situation. Also, after the elimination of the consequences of a broken thermometer, you should drink plenty of fluids: it can be tea, coffee, juice, or plain water. You must do this in order that as soon as possible to put out of your body all the mercury education.
If after all the produced effects you still think that not all of the mercury was collected, be sure to refer to those having gas-mercury analyzers. Do not neglect the consequences of a broken thermometer. It's actually serious! And to you in this situation will depend on the health of all your family members.