Any pregnant woman awaiting the birth of his crumbs, only thinks about one thing - the health of its crumbs. And it is not surprising - today more and more children are born with certain diseases. And one of them is congenital pneumonia of newborns. You can argue long, why so many children are born with less than perfect health - these discussions doctors are not the first year. But the fact remains that parents need to be prepared for whatever the difficulties.
After reading this article, you will learn all the nuances related to congenital pneumonia in children. But these nuances are not so little:
The degree of severity of congenital pneumonia greatly affects the amount of time that has passed after the infection of the child and to the moment of his birth - the higher it is, the harder the disease. This is quite natural - despite the fact that even during the prenatal development of the child's immune system is already working, to cope with the infection, it certainly is not yet in a position to.
First, the immune system in children, even after birth is still quite a long time is far from perfect. And secondly, even quite mature adult immune system itself to deal with pneumonia capable in the most extreme cases. And what can we say about the unborn crumbs?
Equally important in the prognosis of the disease plays a factor, how it is caused by an infectious agent pneumonia. Some pathogens cause a severe form of the disease, while others - more easily. And the tactics of treatment of a particular type of pneumonia also depends on exactly how the agent caused by congenital pneumonia.
- The extent of a full-term baby
No less important is the fact, whether the child was born full term or not. And if the crumb was born prematurely, doctors take into account how much preterm pipsqueak - it is also the most radically affects the tactics of treatment of congenital pneumonia, and the prognosis of the disease.
- Individual anatomical and physiological features
In addition, the disease affects a number of individual characteristics of the child - both anatomical and functional - physiological. For example, the weight of the child, especially the work was his immune system.
Causes of congenital pneumonia
As already mentioned, the causes that can trigger the development of congenital pneumonia, there are quite a number of very different reasons. Sometimes there are cases of combined congenital pneumonia, in which the disease is caused by several factors provoking. And, of course, like the disease is the most serious and complex, the greatest threat to the life of the newborn baby.
The most common culprit of the disease the child are pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus. In addition, often to the development of congenital pneumonia cause different fungi and viruses, and protozoa.
Too many mothers ask - how did pathogens enter the body baby, because the baby is protected fetal bladder and amniotic waters. There are two types of infection kid:
- Bronchogenic method
With this method of infection with pathogenic microflora gets into a child's body through the lungs. The most common in this way triggered by newborns during childbirth. This is due to several factors - anatomy: structural features of the lungs and bronchi of the child, lack of maturity of all the crumbs of the respiratory center, especially if the infant was born prematurely.
There are a number of specific factors that increase the risk of a child's penetration of pathogenic organisms: both acute and chronic diseases of the mother, bleeding during pregnancy, no matter what they were called, prolonged rupture of membranes during childbirth.
- Hematogenic method
When hematogenous transmission method pathogenic microflora in the baby's blood gets together with blood - from mother to child. Although this method of transmission is much rarer in such cases, has its advantages. It goes without saying that when the infection penetrates through the blood of the mother, the mother feels as serious ailments, which means that it will seek the help of a doctor. The doctor will select a course of treatment, which will facilitate the state is not only the future mother but also the baby.
Symptoms of congenital pneumonia
Of course, that asymptomatic congenital pneumonia, can not remain unnoticed. There are quite a number of clinical manifestations of congenital pneumonia. First we need to talk about a few common features. Firstly, the time the first symptoms depends on the infection occurred during childbirth or during prenatal development.
For example, in the case if the crumb born already infected by pathogenic bacteria. As a rule, most such problems faced by those children, who were born prematurely. In this case, characterized by the following symptoms:
Asphyxia today generally is very common - about one in four births. But in premature babies suffering from congenital pneumonia, asphyxia is observed in almost all cases. Often, in order to get the child out of the state of asphyxia, pediatricians - resuscitators have to resort to resuscitation.
As you know, a healthy baby expresses its birth of a loud cry. The kid with the same congenital pneumonia or cries very little, or not cry at all. And the baby's breath and leaves much to be desired - it is very shallow, it is an irregular and very weak. From the inexperienced person may seem that the child is constantly moaning softly. In the light of the child persistent crackles, breathing hard.
- Changes in body temperature of the newborn crumbs
For all newborns are characterized by instability of body temperature. However, those crumbs that were born with congenital pneumonia, these deviations can be very, very significant - the body temperature may rise to about 40 degrees, and in premature infants, in contrast, fall to critical numbers - 35 and below. And then, and another state for a newborn baby is a very serious threat to life.
- Reducing congenital reflexes
Pneumonia degrades overall health, even in adults, not to mention such crumbs. And it is quite natural that a sick child is very sluggish and listless, in severe cases, the child is largely reduced or non-existent, basic innate reflexes, including breathing and sucking. A, respectively, in such cases, a ventilation of the child and a special kind of feeding - through a tube.
- Violation of digestion and weight loss
Fortunately, not always congenital pneumonia occurs in children less severe. Most often pipsqueak still able to breathe and eat on their own. But, alas, the normal digestive process in such cases is also violated - the child vomits frequently, and vomiting in congenital pneumonia is also not uncommon. Accordingly, the body weight of the child can be reduced to the most critical point.
- Pronounced dysfunctions of cardio - vascular system
As you know, the work of all the vital organs are very closely linked. And violations of the lungs almost always entails a disruption of the vascular system. Especially clearly noticeable on the mucous membranes of the child and his skin - they become a distinct pale, and in severe cases, and does bluish tint. Often the crumbs very swollen legs - swelling visible even to the naked eye.
It is also often in children suffering from congenital pneumonia, quite often there are a variety of cardiac arrhythmias. But fortunately, these cardiac arrhythmias disappear soon after the doctors can not cope with congenital pneumonia.
But in the event that infection by pathogenic bacteria did not occur in the womb and during birth process, congenital pneumonia symptoms are somewhat different. Yes, and they do not appear in the first minutes and hours of life, but only after two - three days. As mentioned above, the severity of the disease depends on several factors, including the type of agent and the degree of full-term baby. Symptoms of this form of the disease are:
- Change the color of the skin
The first thing you pay attention to the doctors, and the very young mother - a change in color of the skin and mucous membranes - they become the first earthy - gray, then, as the disease progresses, very pale, and finally bluish. Also, the child quickly grows cyanosis - bluish nasolabial triangle.
- Disorders of the central nervous system
In almost all cases of congenital pneumonia as the disease your child has certain disorders of the central nervous system - the child washes to be overly excited or lethargic. Incidentally, listlessness and lethargy are much more common.
At the child a few days after birth may be significantly reduced or even abyss appetite - this fact should also be alert young mother and doctors, since it is very often one of the symptoms of congenital pneumonia. When he attempts to feed the baby spits up constantly, and perhaps even the appearance of sufficiently strong vomiting. Often these phenomena are accompanied by diarrhea.
Tragically, very often it turns out that inexperienced pediatricians do not notice other symptoms of congenital pneumonia, except for vomiting and diarrhea. As a result, the child exhibited the diagnosis "intestinal infection" begins totally unnecessary treatment, but pneumonia is not treated as long as the symptoms become apparent. And, accordingly, valuable time for treatment permanently missing.
As the disease changes the breath of a newborn baby - it is becoming more and more difficult, if you carefully watch your baby, you may notice that the wings of the nose swell up considerably. If a pipsqueak was born full-term, significantly quickens breathing becomes hoarse groaning. But in the event that a pipsqueak born prematurely, respiratory rate on the contrary, decreases. This condition of the child requires special attention from the doctors - because breathing can stop almost any second.
- Increased body temperature of the child
Finally, almost the last to have a child with congenital pneumonia, body temperature rises - sometimes to very high values.
There is also another kind of pneumonia in newborn infants. Despite the fact that such a call congenital pneumonia can not talk about it all the same necessary. Infection with the similar varieties of the disease is a few days after birth. And pneumonia occurs in this case otherwise.
It begins with the appearance of symptoms, which are typical for a child with absolutely any acute respiratory diseases: cough, mild fever, runny nose. As a rule, the child is beginning to heal from acute respiratory disease.
Gradually, the child begins to deteriorate - the child becomes very restless, constantly crying, very bad sleep and began to refuse food. The emergence of such behavior should alert the physician and mother of the child, as for simple acute respiratory disease, they are not typical.
After another night in the largely start to decline all innate reflexes toddler begins to rise the temperature of the body, and, most of all, very much. At the same time the baby begins to experience respiratory failure and heart rhythm disturbances - increased number of heartbeats at times.
Incidentally, in this case a full-term baby also plays a significant role. As a rule, if the child was born in time, the disease takes about a week. A premature crumbs are much more vulnerable - they have the disease develops in only two or three days. This is not surprising - after all full-term baby at times stronger than the one that hastened to be born, and the immune system have developed much better.
Treatment of neonatal pneumonia
As mentioned above, neonatal pneumonia can be very serious threat to life of the child. However, as statistics show survivors of congenital pneumonia, the most important thing - it is timely diagnosis of the disease, proper treatment, a good kid, and proper care. Under these conditions, the forecast of the disease is extremely favorable.
Of course, the treatment of congenital pneumonia should be performed only in a hospital - and that's not surprising, because the little pipsqueak in need around the clock medical supervision. Congenital pneumonia - a very insidious disease because complications such as breathing and heartbeat stop. In such cases, medical assistance should be provided immediately - because seconds count.
First we need to tell you more about the rules of care for a sick baby, because more often than it is on the mother's shoulders rests the responsible duty. But this depends largely on the success of the treatment of congenital pneumonia.
- Feeding a sick child. In the event that the child's condition allows breastfeeding, the young mother should remember that its crumb due to the illness becomes very weak. A, respectively, and suck as effectively as do healthy children, he just simply can not - too quickly tired. But nutrition is vital for it! That is why the mother should as often as possible to offer the child. And even more so in this situation of no feeding "by the hour" is not out of the question.
- Swaddling. Recently swaddling losing its former popularity - more and more mothers prefer the latter-day from the first day to put on jackets and sliders crumbs. But if you still prefer the traditional swaddling on the illness crumbs of diapers need to forget. Doctors explain the recommendation that the diaper tightening the chest of the child and hinder the already difficult breathing.
- Change the position. It is known that pulmonary congestion only contributes to the development of severe pneumonia. To avoid this phenomenon, the child should as often as possible to change the position of the body. And as a newborn baby is still too small, and even roll over on their own are not able to, he must help my mother. Child must be turned from side to side at least once an hour, or even better - twice an hour.
Doctors, if necessary, appoint a child carrying both oxygen therapy and aerotherapy. In case of severe pneumonia occurs in form and in the lungs of the child constantly stagnates mucus, doctors will periodically removing it from the upper respiratory tract by means of special drug.
The leading role in the treatment of congenital pneumonia plays medication. It was mentioned above that in congenital pneumonia in children often appear severe swelling - remove the child for their appointed diuretic medications.
It is also mandatory for the treatment of congenital pneumonia, doctors use antibiotics. Too many parents are frightened because of the need of antibiotics - without them it is impossible to cure pneumonia, since it is these drugs are able to suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms.
Selected antimicrobials very carefully, in each case individually - depending on the course of the disease, and most importantly - depending on the type of pathogen, which was responsible for congenital pneumonia.