Trichomoniasis is a systemic infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, which is caused by Trichomonas simple. Today it is recognized as the first on the prevalence of typical infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and diseases of the genitourinary system.
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What is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis occurs several times more chlamydia, syphilis, HIV infection. All this shows that the treatment of trichomoniasis is an important and urgent task. Especially that asymptomatic often makes ignore some of the symptoms are not characteristic of the organism. People, confident in his own infallibility, do not suggest that infection with sexually transmitted diseases is possible through personal hygiene, wet towels, medical instruments contaminated with Trichomonas.
There are even venereal disease, consider harmless venereal disease trichomoniasis. Their patients imagine themselves absolutely healthy, infecting partners. Especially blithely behave men who have no symptoms or very less pronounced than in women. They believe that the disease will pass by itself, but the official medicine known cases of self-healing. It often happens that a woman who is infected sexual partner is undergoing long-term therapy, but complaints about the unpleasant discharge remains. At the same time her partner has never been investigated and was not treated. So, trichomoniasis treatment strictly necessary for both partners! If the examination of the partner is irrational, unreasonable conduct of his treatment.
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Trichomonas vaginalis - the main causative agent of the disease, called for the principal place of localization in the female body. In men, it lives in the urethra, prostate and seminal vesicles. Trichomonas is the simplest and is an independent single-celled organism. It is called a true predator, able to absorb a lot of bacteria, red blood cells, skin cells. Trichomonas also destroys the sperm, which is often the cause of infertility. It is - a living organism, like all living things, it needs nourishment. The parasite gets nutrients, destroying the host cell. The very same Trichomonas is absorbed and destroyed by macrophages - large cells that protect the body.
To date, about 50 kinds studied Trichomonas, but proved that live in the human body can only three kinds: the gastrointestinal tract (Trihomonas hominis), genitourinary (Trihomonas vaginalis), oral (Trihomonas tenax). A person can swallow germs and bacteria that are close to them. Entering then into the blood, trichomonas makes them stand out, thus transferring dangerous disease-causing pathogens. Only now these pathogens appears stable immunity on leukocytes. Thus, Trichomonas become more dangerous.
After all, in addition to the harm that bring themselves, they also transmit other pathogenic bacteria from the carrier.
The consequence of this activity can be the most diverse and unexpected illness, such as cancer or HIV.
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Ways of transmission and prevalence
Trichomoniasis - is one of those sexually transmitted diseases, which are not subject to the reporting and registration in many countries. Prevalence of it depends on the following factors: socio-economic conditions of the population, the quality and timeliness of care, hygiene, level of culture and education of people. For example, in the United States, trichomoniasis is most often exposed to black citizens. The amount of the disease among adolescents is increasing, thanks to the early onset of sexual activity. On Statistics affects sexual identity population trichomoniasis in men has hardly been studied. Women who have casual sex are subject trichomoniasis 4 times more likely than those who have a steady partner.
Trichomoniasis is transmitted mainly through sexual contact. The probability that for a single protected contact will be transmitted pathogen is 80%. You can send in the same sex. Anal sex, oral-genital, too, will be the cause of the infection, as the pathogen is able to live in the intestines. Cases of transmission of the parasite in utero and at birth. Infection with the contact with the secretions of the patient: blood, semen, vaginal secretions. Domestic way of infection is rare: in bathing suit, washcloths, hygiene items, and if you have not seen the wet separation in the seat of the toilet.
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The main symptoms of trichomoniasis
Despite its viability within the human body, it is very weak and trichomonas unstable. As it turned out, only Trichomonas vaginalis may bring trichomoniasis. There is one type of bacteria that lives in the waters that has no relation to the disease. In addition, agents die quickly in a 2% solution of soap and dried. Temperatures above 40 ° C is also damaging to them. So simple observance of elementary rules of personal hygiene is able in some cases to prevent infection.
The symptoms of trichomoniasis in men and women are different.
In women, the clinical picture is characterized by hyperemia NGOs and vaginal mucosa. In addition, characterized by pain during urination and sexual intercourse; discomfort in the abdomen; itching, burning, redness in the area of NGOs; discharge with an unpleasant odor, yellow or green, frothy, often (they occur 3-4 days after sexual intercourse); vaginal mucosa hyperemia, bleeding, covered with pustules. Then there endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus), vestibulitis, skeneit.
The girls who did not have sex, and trichomoniasis characterized vulvity colpitis. In men, the disease is largely asymptomatic. Sometimes there are slight discharge from the urethra, transparent or grayish. Often these foams, in the form of large droplets. Present pain when urinating, itching, burning. The main manifestation of trichomoniasis in men are the symptoms of prostatitis. Inflammation causes heaviness and discomfort in the perineum, testicles, in the pelvic area. A child infected by mother - pain when urinating, itching. Girls may be swelling and redness of the external genitalia.
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If treatment is started or trichomoniasis was insufficient, complications are inevitable. Women are different inflammatory processes:
endometritis (inflammation of the uterus);
salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes);
adhesions resulting in inflammation of the ovaries;
the birth of disabled children;
Men suffer from complications such as:
inflammation of the penis.
Reduced sperm viability. In very advanced cases, trichomoniasis lead to anemia, destruction of the hematopoietic system, exhaustion, general hypoxia, loss of vision.
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Diagnosis of trichomoniasis
Among venereal disease is believed that trichomoniasis spread so widely because of its incorrect diagnosis of gynecology and urology. Each specialist has its own method of diagnostics: in gynecology and urology chief is PCR (DNA diagnostics), while venereologists - taking a swab for culture. Due to disagreements were adopted common rules of rational diagnosis of trichomoniasis. In addition, this measure allows an accurate diagnosis at the lowest cost of finance and the time and avoid unnecessary mistakes.
Physical examination of the patient, collecting history.
Fence biological material for laboratory research.
If there are complaints, and the result is negative, the amplification is carried out the test. This is one way of determining the speed of the antigen.
If the presence of all signs of infection result will again be negative, the method of cultivation, that is planting discharge to the culture medium.
Apply too large Number of diagnostic methods impractical. It is better to direct the available resources for treatment and prevention of complications. In the treatment of trichomoniasis is necessary to fulfill certain conditions and take into account a number of features: Trichomonas is treated independently from the symptoms are often missing. Make sure both the treated sexual partner is necessary rejection of the use of alcohol, abstinence from sex for the duration of the treatment. Treatment complex: symptomatic treatment, normalizing the microflora of topical drugs, antibiotics, immunomodulatory treatment. Very often require treatment and related STDs.
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Treatment and prevention of trichomoniasis
Drug therapy for trichomoniasis - is the use of drugs of 5-nitroimidazoles: metronidazole, ornidazole, seknidazol, nomirazol, tinidazole. In many cases, this includes protivotrihomonadnyh vaccine - The Salk Trihovak (female) and the Salk Urovak (men). Topical preparations such as ointments, suppositories, suppositories, douches. Injections are used either in complex cases or when other treatments ineffective. It must be remembered that antibiotics have no effect on Trichomonas, because it is the simplest organism, not a bacterium. So, it is important to adhere to the treatment regimen prescribed by the doctor. If trichomoniasis treatment should be effective.
Preparations of this group should take a course that is until the end even if the symptoms disappear. The course can last from 10 days to 1 month, depending on the effectiveness of treatment and the results of the audit trail. Treatment of trichomoniasis during pregnancy has its own specificity: it begins only 12 weeks and use only local products. An early start leads to the death of the fetus. Treatment of men includes antiprotozoal therapy in combination with injections of imidazole and gonovaktsiny. Wires and local treatment in the form of washes. After the course of treatment prescribed obligatory reference laboratory studies: women - for 3 menstrual cycles, men - in the month following the end of treatment.
Human body does not develop immunity to Trichomonas, so re-infection is very possible
. It is necessary to adhere to the rules of personal hygiene, keep a secure sexual life, held 2 times a year a medical examination and improves the immune system to prevent. Otherwise you'll have to be treated again.