Dysbacteriosis. About him all heard a lot about him write and they often frighten young parents. Young mothers anxiously peering into the contents of the diaper, frightened at the slightest change in stool consistency. Often the slightest indigestion child's parents take for goiter and start to treat yourself crumbs all means at hand. Often, this treatment brings a completely opposite result, only worsen the condition of the child. And the treatment of dysbiosis in children is only possible if the cause of the disease and the characteristics of the course are absolutely reliably known.
However, only a few good idea of what is actually bacteria overgrowth in infants, what are its causes and treatments. It is for young parents and wrote this article, which is given the most complete description of such diseases as intestinal dysbiosis.
Doctors give the following definition of the disease goiter. Dysbacteriosis is any disruption of the normal balance of intestinal microflora, which interferes with a natural balance between pathogenic and beneficial microflora, resulting in a failure in the normal operation of the intestine.
Just born pipsqueak of a sterile environment mother's organism gets into the environment of the world, which is the most densely populated with different types of microorganisms. Of course, in such circumstances, the child's body can not simply remain as sterile as it was in the womb. Almost from the moment of birth crumbs in his body begins the process of colonization by microorganisms, both useful and pathogens.
Strictly speaking, the process of colonization by microorganisms of the intestine of the child begins in the birth process, at a time when the baby makes his progress through the birth canal of the mother. And after the baby starts to eat independently, his intestines become home to a wide variety of microorganisms. Micro-organisms in the gut toddler begin actively reproduce. A healthy baby every three grams of feces, there is one gram of bacteria. Such coexistence and human organisms beneficial to both parties and is called symbiosis.
Microorganisms that live in the human intestine, divided into two subspecies:
Microorganisms of this group just vital for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. These microorganisms are essential for digestion of the process, to complete the work of the immune system of the child. Data microorganisms include E. coli, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Bacteria - saprophytes that have no human health or the positive or negative influence, also apply to obligate flora. This group is the most extensive and approximately 96% of the intestinal microflora.
Microorganisms of this group in the gut are present in small quantities, and under unfavorable conditions, for example, lowered immunity, trauma, stress, unhealthy diet, they begin to actively proliferate. But after reaching the critical point this pathogenic microflora often leads to a variety of intestinal infections. To conditionally pathogenic microflora includes microorganisms such as Proteus, staphylococci, Candida fungi. And if the presence of the microflora in the adult does not always lead to the emergence of disease, in infants whose immune system is not yet fully operating - always.
I would like to tell you more about these special beneficial bacteria like bifidobacteria and lactobacillus. Their presence in the body of the child, as mentioned above, is necessary. If these microorganisms in the gut enough, they just simply displace all pathogens. This happens due to the fact that the waste products these bacteria create an environment in which the existence of pathogenic organisms is simply impossible.
The second, equally important function of beneficial microflora, is to maintain the normal functioning of the immune system. The presence of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli stimulate the production of antibodies that protect the baby from entering the body of various pathogens. Not for nothing in violation of the balance of microflora in the child so often there is a significant weakening of the immune system.
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are responsible for producing enteric vitamins such as:
- Folic acid
- Vitamin B6
These vitamins are necessary for normal development of the child and the work of his immune system. And besides, these microorganisms are responsible for the complete absorption of iron, calcium and vitamin D.
Also, another important function is to stimulate bacterial intestinal motility. Normal peristalsis to avoid various problems with constipation in a child.
Knowing all this, it becomes obvious why it is so important to the kid in the gut was the right balance of bacteria. If it is broken, there is a risk of hypovitaminosis, rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Moreover, substantially increases the risk of intestinal infections.
The process of formation of the microflora
As mentioned earlier, the baby is born with a completely sterile gut. Check intestinal microflora begins during childbirth. Immediately after birth, right in the delivery room, crumbs first contact with the outside world and his body at this point continues to be populated by microorganisms. After minimal processing doctors spread the crumbs on his stomach to his mother. The kid gets another batch of microflora, which gives the skin, thereby preventing the initial colonization of the baby's skin alien microflora.
Further there is, perhaps, the most important event in the life of each child, the first breastfeeding. After pipsqueak puts maternal nipple in her mouth and makes the first sip of a valuable colostrum. At this point, the first stone of the foundation of health remains. Apart from the fact that colostrum is a huge number of different nutrients that are necessary for the baby, it includes factors affecting the formation of the natural intestinal microflora.
Colostrum is very rich in bifidogenic components that stimulate the development and growth of bifidobacteria. Colostrum gets into the intestines of a newborn baby for the first time two hours, his life. Once in the body of a child, these substances create favorable conditions for the life of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which got into the intestine, creating a favorable environment for the supply of bifidobacteria. Furthermore, the large quantity of colostrum immunoglobulins which are peculiar biological graft from a huge number of diseases.
That is why the kids, which is attached to the breast in the first two hours of life, grow healthier and more robust than their peers who for some - reason had since birth separated from its mother's breast. These children are much less likely to occur cases of dysbiosis, they formed much quicker favorable microflora, they are developed harmoniously and are gaining weight.
After first applying to the chest, over the next three - five days, the baby is exposed to gut infection by various microorganisms of the intestine. And among organisms entering the intestine, quite a number of conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. That is why often during the first week of life the baby had developed the so-called transit goiter, which is characterized by the appearance of watery stools with mucus and streaks of green, and in addition, spastic abdominal pain and regurgitation.
But around the end of the first week of a baby begins the next phase of intestinal colonization by microorganisms. By this time, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli obtained the baby in the first hours of life, multiply in large enough quantities, and begin to displace pathogens. Signs of microflora gradually disappear, normal baby chair, regurgitation significantly reduced to the values of the physiological age norm. Treatment of dysbiosis in infants is performed successfully.
By itself, the transit bacteria overgrowth is not a disease, provided that it was not accompanied by the appearance of complications such as deep prematurity, antibiotics and the presence of infectious diseases. But in order to successfully passed this phase shall be complied with a number of specific requirements:
- The earliest possible breastfeeding, preferably within the first two hours after birth crumbs.
- Breastfeeding on demand during all this time. The question is, what to feed the baby at dysbacteriosis should not even be discussed - if mother's milk has - it is only the breast.
- Rooming-in mother and baby.
If these simple rules are violated, will drastically increase your chances of developing primary dysbiosis and, consequently, a violation of the normal process of digestion and stool. At crumbs deteriorating work already is an immature immune system, there may be a food allergy. Signs of dysbiosis in children does not take long to wait.
Behavior crumbs suffering from goiter, varies considerably. If crumbs disrupt the normal qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora, pipsqueak experiencing some discomfort. Dysbacteriosis symptoms in children has a precise and clearly defined. The child observed increased flatulence and intestinal cramps occur, causing the baby shows anxiety, crying Sucitu legs. He has broken the usual sleep and wakefulness.
Typically, these attacks occur intestinal colic and a half - two hours after feeding the baby. Typically, the baby belly swells, there is rumbling along the intestine. As a consequence of these events, there are the crumbs regurgitation, and even vomiting. If goiter is the crumbs in a pronounced form, you may experience a phenomenon known as malabsorption. As a result, there is a violation of absorption in the small intestines of nutrients, the baby have diarrhea - baby chair foam and has a sharp putrid odor. In addition, the baby is not only not gain weight, but often loses it.
And as mentioned above, a pipsqueak suffers strong dysbiosis in the event that in his body that something is wrong - a pipsqueak born prematurely or was treated with antibiotics. And malabsorption significantly reduces overall health and crumbs for the underlying disease, if any, took place to be.
After a certain time from diarrhea crumbs may change to persistent constipation. This happens because in the gut of a baby in a large extent reduced the contents of bifidobacteria, which are responsible for the proper peristalsis, which is absolutely necessary for the normal child's chair.
Types of dysbiosis
Depending on what the cause of dysbiosis in children, it is divided into two subspecies:
- Compensated dysbacteriosis
If a pipsqueak suffering compensated dysbiosis, no external manifestations of dysbiosis is not observed. She feels the baby is quite satisfactory, no indigestion or no chair. And the mere presence of dysbiosis is detected, as a rule, quite by accident, in the analysis of feces. And almost always the cause of this analysis is any other disease, or a simple check-up. The analysis on a dysbacteriosis in children is rarely targeted.
- Non-compensable dysbiosis
But Non-compensable type of dysbiosis delivers a huge number of health problems remains. All of the above signs of dysbiosis present the question of the treatment of the baby is simply not worth it. Treatment should be started immediately, avoiding further deterioration. After all, the neglect of dysbiosis, the harder it is to treat, and the greater the suffering body crumbs. Preparations of dysbiosis fast enough for kids are beginning to have a positive impact on the body of the baby.
In the first case, in compensated form of dysbiosis, the absence of complaints and a good set of weights, parents often refuse to treat dysbiosis, assuming that there is no reason for concern. However, such leave without attention dysbiosis may only older children. At the very crumbs of goiter should be treated in any case, no matter what kind it was not - compensated or not compensated. In small crumbs of the concept of compensation is very unstable - Today the compensation is sufficient, and tomorrow will be the uncompensated goiter occurring in a very severe form. That is why you need the right treatment crumbs.
Treatment of dysbiosis
Once confirmed fears of parents, they have a logical question: how to treat goiter in children? As corny as it may sound, but the best treatment of dysbiosis - a proper and prolonged breast-feeding a baby. Every kid needs a mother's jelly for at least the first year of life. And about children suffering from intestinal dysbiosis, and can not speak. Dysbacteriosis in children under one year is treated successfully breastfeeding.
It has been said that the colostrum is a huge number of substances that promote the formation of normal microflora. But the mature breast milk no less beneficial to the intestinal flora of the child. It creates the optimal environment for the growth and development of these bacteria, and helps to maintain the necessary balance between the lacto bacteria, Escherichia coli and bifidobacteria, thus ensuring not only the proper digestion, but also the prevention of allergic reactions.
If for some - any reason you can not breastfeed your baby, you need to very carefully approach the issue of choice of the mixture for artificial feeding crumbs. Mix for such a child should include additional protective factors. Such mixtures include all fermented mixture, and dry mixes, containing in its composition prebiotics. Prebiotics - those substances that create favorable for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli conditions. Keep in mind that the selection of therapeutic mixture is necessarily necessary to consult with your doctor - a pediatrician.
Before medication dysbiosis is required to conduct a study of feces of a child for an accurate diagnosis of the disease and the elimination of intestinal infections. After the conclusion will be obtained laboratory test confirming the presence of the baby dysbiosis can proceed directly to the treatment.
The treatment itself dysbacteriosis consists of two stages. The first step is to achieve complete suppression of reproduction and growth of abnormal flora. For this purpose, doctors prescribe crumbs receiving special drugs, called bacteriophages. These Immunopreparat absorbed and removed from the body of the child all pathogens. In severe cases, when the bacteriophages can not cope, doctors are forced to resort to an intestinal antiseptic, and even antibiotics. Antibiotics are used at the same ones that have an effect only on the gut lumen without entering the blood.
The second step should be the treatment of dysbiosis settling bowel microflora and creating the necessary favorable for its growth and development conditions. For this purpose the probiotics - drugs that contain in their composition live bifidus and Lactobacillus and E. coli. One can not recommend a particular drug - treatment should be administered only by a physician and in each case - an individual basis.
Of course, it is much more reasonable to try to prevent the development of dysbiosis than after his cure. This should be done as early as possible, even before pregnancy. Before becoming pregnant mother should undergo a full examination in order to identify and eliminate the violation of the microflora of the genital tract. In the same case, if the presence of candidiasis revealed during pregnancy, you should immediately start treatment. Modern pharmacology offers a large number of drugs that can be used during pregnancy.