Unfortunately, there are many wide variety of human diseases. And every year their number is increasing. And one of these diseases is arachnoiditis. The disease is little known to the general public, however, it is found very often. Arachnoiditis - is an inflammatory process that affects the arachnoid brain or spinal cord. However, as the medical practice, it is much more common is cerebral arachnoiditis.
Because of the anatomical structure of the brain and spinal cord development of isolated lesions of the arachnoid is impossible in principle. This is explained by the fact that the stand-alone grid blood vessels in the arachnoid do not exist. And so the inflammatory process in almost all cases, spread to nearby tissues. That is why most doctors do not speak about arachnoiditis, notably meningitis. Although, in essence, the original cause of the disease is just arachnoiditis.
The causes of the disease
There are several main reasons for the development of the disease, most common culprits are a variety of infections, including neuroinfection. In addition, often the cause of the disease are intoxication different nature of origin, as well as serious head - injuries. Insure against them is difficult, almost impossible. However, be aware of them it's worth - it will help reduce the threat on their own experience to know what arachnoiditis. Next, we describe in more detail about these reasons.
Of course, this disease can not pass without leaving a trace - and arachnoid, and surrounding tissues marked thickening and clouding of the sites. Furthermore, arachnoiditis often leads to the development of active adhesive processes. As a result of these processes in the meninges grow spikes consisting of connective tissue. These spikes are very well seen as the proliferation of blood vessels, and their opacity. In particularly advanced cases often formed cysts which may be of different sizes.
All of these lesions may be localized at various sites of the brain. Depending on the localization of this most doctors arachnoiditis divided into several varieties: fiber-chiasmatic, convexital, spinal. All varieties have symptoms of the disease is about the same, but in some ways for the manifestation and may vary. In rare cases an atypical course of the disease.
Of course, arachnoiditis - this is a very serious disease. And so it has no symptoms occur just simply can not. There are a number of different features that can make the doctor suspect the patient is human arachnoiditis:
This symptom to some extent inherent to any and all kinds of diseases arachnoiditis. However, most of the headaches suffer are the people who are sick cerebral form of the disease. As a rule, they feel strong enough pain - diffuse nature. However, although less frequent, but still, there are localized pain.
The main feature of the headache that is caused by arachnoiditis is its gain for any, even the slightest, moving his head. There is even a special test - a sick person to become a doctor offers on tiptoes, and then abruptly shift the weight to the heel. In the event that at the moment when the man touched the floor with his heels, the pain increased, it is possible to suspect that he arachnoiditis.
In the event that affects arachnoiditis front parts of the brain, it is called convexital. For this type of diseases characterized by disorders such as musculoskeletal system, and various neural receptors. Human movement becomes clumsy, sometimes it is hard enough even to lift the cup.
Specific gait is also a sick person - it can "swing" from side to side, he can run across different subjects. All this is due to the fact that in a - somewhat affected cerebellum. And the severity of the coordination of movements depends on the extent of the cerebellum.
Of course, all these changes are very afraid of both the sick person and his family. But no need to panic - almost one hundred percent of all of these phenomena are almost without a trace. The main thing - time to seek medical help and get proper treatment.
In addition, people often lose sensitivity - including pain. However, fortunately, the sensitivity is lost only partially - complete loss is extremely rare, only in very severe cases. In this form of the disease there is one very unpleasant feature - it can often lead to seizures - both focal and general nature. So arachnoiditis manifested half of all patients.
In that case, if a person arachnoiditis occurs as a result of any - any injury or as a result of the spread of the inflammatory process with the maxillary sinuses, a sick person may be experiencing problems with the visual apparatus. Man can observe the appearance of blurred, or bright spots before his eyes, then begins a gradual decrease in visual acuity in both eyes.
Fundus examination doctor - ophthalmologist, as a rule, there is a marked optic neuritis. However, if this happened to you or your loved ones, do not panic - after arachnoiditis will be cured, vision gradually begins to recover. Typically, over time it is restored in full, with a few exceptions.
- Increased intracranial pressure
In almost all cases of arachnoiditis may be a phenomenon of increased intracranial pressure. If this phenomenon occurs, your doctor will likely necessarily exclude the possibility of such diseases as arachnoiditis.
- Pain in the lumbar - sacral
In the case of arachnoiditis is localized in the spinal cord, a sick person may experience pain in the lumbar region, sacrum, or in the thoracic region - depending on the location. And the pain can be quite intense. It is very important in this situation to eliminate low back pain, sciatica and acute pyelonephritis, which can be masked by arachnoiditis.
As mentioned above, successful treatment is very important in time and correctly diagnosing arachnoiditis. In order to properly diagnose, the doctor requires data of complex inspection of the sick person, the assessment of clinical manifestations of the disease and the general history. That is why the diagnosis always takes time.
And the first thing doctors have to do - is to completely eliminate the possibility of a sick person with such a serious disease such as brain tumor. Symptoms of these diseases is very similar - it is very important to find the right time and cause an indisposition at sick person. After all, the tactics of treatment of these diseases is completely different, and delay the treatment is unacceptable in any case, nor in the other - otherwise there is a serious risk to human health. Cerebral arachnoiditis, for that matter, and other varieties, is a very insidious disease!
To diagnose the disease using a variety of methods - the feasibility of each determined by a physician. Typically, the foundation are symptoms. For example, if a person is worried about back pain, your doctor may decide on the need for puncture. In the event that actually takes place arachnoiditis, hit the spinal cord, spinal - spinal fluid will flow under some pressure, and laboratory studies show the presence of inflammation.
In that case, if a person complains of pain in the head, most often the doctor prescribes the patient imaging of the brain. This study reveals the possible extension of certain parts of the brain, focal changes, and sometimes even cysts. Reliability tomography is about 99%.
Also for the correct diagnosis is of great importance and how it begins disorder arachnoiditis. As a rule, if a person became ill arachnoiditis, malaise does not begin suddenly. Most often, just before the man suffered these or other infectious diseases, such as sinusitis or purulent otitis.
Then the person has the feeling of nausea, often accompanied by vomiting. Please bear attacks in waves, but as the disease becomes almost constant. And in that case, if not begun treatment of arachnoiditis, the use of any pharmacological agents designed to remove nausea, completely ineffective. About the second day after the onset of nausea joins her headache. Its intensity also increases as the disease progresses.
Treatment of the disease
Once the disease is diagnosed reliably, you need as quickly as possible to begin treatment. The first thing to do - is to establish the cause, trigger the development of diseases such as arachnoiditis. In that case, if this was not the cause of injury, and infection or that need as soon as possible to begin its treatment.
Depending on whether the infection in a human patient, the physician will select an antibacterial preparation in the dosage that is needed for every individual patient. Antibacterial drug will not only eliminate the root cause of the disease - an infection, but also relieve inflammation of the brain membranes.
In addition to antibacterial drugs to the sick person in almost all cases are assigned different antihistamines. They are necessary in order to remove the swelling, which will inevitably arise as a result of the defeat of the meninges. In severe cases, the sick person will be assigned to intravenous injections of various drugs that act on the body a little bit faster.
In the case arachnoiditis accompanied by convulsive syndrome, doctors appoint appropriate antiepileptic drugs. Furthermore, to alleviate the condition of the sick person, doctors may assign symptomatically. This treatment has a very noticeable result.
In some severe cases, the above measures may be ineffective - symptoms continues to grow, increased intracranial pressure, convulsive symptom is enhanced vision greatly reduced. Delay in such cases, in any case inadmissible - under threat not only health, but also the lives of the sick person. In such cases, doctors decide on the need for surgical intervention.
After the acute stage of the disease cropped, doctors are beginning to pathogenetic therapy. This treatment is very long lasting - it can take about three months. The purpose of this treatment is the normalization of intracranial pressure, stimulation of the cerebral circulation and the overall improvement of the body.
Further outlook for the sick person
Since arachnoiditis - a very dangerous disease, pass without trace, he is unlikely to. However, for the life of the forecast is very favorable - if the disease is diagnosed promptly and treatment is begun right, threats to human life virtually none. The only exception - it arachnoiditis, which is complicated by hydrocephalus brain. In this case, alas, to save the man is not always possible.
Most often a sick man who had endured arachnoiditis - of course, after a course of full rehabilitation, restores almost full. Sometimes, however, in the event that health is not restored in full, a special medical commission can decide whether to admit the sick person disabled group III.
In very rare cases, a person who has had a complicated form of arachnoiditis may periodic occurrence of seizures. In this case, the sick person will be forced to rest of his life to take special anticonvulsants. Of course, in this case the person will also receive a disability group, mostly II. This occurs in about 10% of all cases when a person suffered a cerebral arachnoiditis, especially complicated.
Approximately 2% of all cases of the disease is a complication of arachnoiditis gives as strong decline of view. Sometimes a person can lose it completely. Of course, in this case, the person is no longer able to work effectively, so it necessarily will receive a disability I group. The reason for this will arachnoiditis.
Precautions after illness
In addition, the first year after a person has suffered arachnoiditis, it must comply with certain precautions, even if the state of health does not suffer. For example, in the case if a person during his illness had problems with the coordination of movements, or the seizures in the first year it is to refuse to work in dangerous conditions. These conditions include the work of the open fire, and high enough to transport and about the dangerous mechanisms - a certificate that the person suffered arachnoiditis, give the right to light work.
Everyone, without exception, patients undergoing arachnoiditis, is to try and refuse to work in noisy environments too, in conditions significantly different from the usual atmospheric pressure - such as aircraft or mine. All these factors can be triggers - lead to a re-emergence of arachnoiditis.
In addition, you must be afraid of a variety of infections, at least the first year of the disease. Otherwise, the very high risk of recurrent disease arachnoiditis. Of course, this is not so easy, however, this measure will help to avoid many problems. By the way, the repeated experience more serious disease, and the risk of complications in this case in the example above.
The best way to avoid those or other infections to date - a general strengthening of the immune system. This can be done by yourself, but it makes more sense to see a doctor - immunologist, who carefully evaluate the condition of the person. If you want to be a number of studies - including blood tests.
Based on these data the doctor will select a special therapy that can help greatly improve the immune system, enhance the resistance to various infections. This measure is very useful for anyone, let alone for had undergone such a serious disease, such as arachnoiditis, - even more so.
In conclusion, I would like to remind once again - of course, arachnoiditis is an unpleasant disease that permanently unsettle the sick person and his family. However, that is no reason to be upset - timely appeal for medical help, careful observance of all doctor's appointments, and its recommendations will help to cure such diseases as cerebral arachnoiditis.