Today, asthma is an urgent problem of practical public health worldwide. The results of major studies in this area showed an increase in the number of patients diagnosed with this disease, and the mortality rate among them.
Diagnosis of asthma is complex and multi-step process.
The initial stage of diagnosis is to ask the patient (collecting anamnesis) and a clinical examination, which allows in many cases correct diagnosis.
Under questioning implied clarification patient's complaints, as well as identifying the possible evolution of the disease during a certain period of time.
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Diagnostic criteria for asthma
The diagnosis of asthma is facilitated by the use of certain criteria. Diagnostic criteria can be divided into primary and secondary.
The main diagnostic criteria for prognosis of asthma include:
the presence of the patient periodic attacks expiratory breathlessness, which can take place both spontaneously and under the influence of bronchodilators;
definition of the type of obstructive respiratory failure during the study in the patient's respiratory process (reduction of peak expiratory flow, FEV1, peak expiratory flow volume);
the presence of a biological marker (increased content of NO in exhaled air);
the occurrence of symptoms in a patient with bronchial hyperreactivity using provocative tests (exercise, methacholine, histamine).
Additional diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of asthma include:
the presence of unmotivated patient coughs during sleep or after exercise, stiffness in the chest, wheezing occurrence;
a positive skin test to allergens;
if the patient has hay fever, hay fever, eczema, and similar illnesses in his family;
the presence in the patient's blood increased levels of total and specific IgE (reagin).
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Methods of diagnosis of asthma
The study of respiratory function in the patient this disease using the above criteria and applying appropriate diagnostic methods is an essential condition for an objective assessment of the degree of the disease, its variability, reversibility and effectiveness of future treatment.
The main methods of diagnosis of asthma include:
Spirography - graphic registration of lung volume during respiration. Characteristic features of the disease in this method are:
Tiffno decrease in the index;
decrease in the volume of air forced in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC).
Pneumotachograph. With this method of diagnosis of asthma determines the peak volumetric flow rate, the maximum volumetric rate of 25%, 50%, 75% and FVC mean velocities.
Pikfluometriya - asthma diagnostic method based on determining a maximum volumetric rate of air during the peak expiratory flow after full inhalation.
In the diagnosis of the disease, to rule out other diseases, sometimes prescribe a CT scan and chest X-rays.
Blood analysis, determination of IgE and other diagnostic methods are optional and do not play a decisive role in the selection of treatment methods.
The baby continues to grow and gain weight. This may cause some difficulties in childbirth. After all, big baby is somewhat more complicated to move through the birth canal. Besides continuing aging of the placenta, which can result in a loss of power as the fetus and the development of hypoxia. At this stage of pregnancy lasts ossification of the skull bones and the skeleton of the fetus. Typically, overripe cranial bones become dense, whereby during birth they lose the ability to configuration. This may contribute to a prolonged period of attempts at delivery, resulting in a birth injury can develop in the child.
Pregnancy Week 42: uzi. At this period in a child's eyes are open, grew long hair and nails. In general, it has become more active. If perenoshennosti baby's skin can be no generic layer of grease, wrinkled, dry and flaky, sometimes it can have a yellowish tint.
Pregnancy Week 42: symptoms. Up to 42 weeks' dohazhivayut "only 10% of pregnant women. But even if you hit a number, do not worry, because in 70% of cases simply initially was incorrectly calculated due date. However, in order not to miss a truly post-term pregnancy, should be kept under medical supervision.
Pregnancy Week 42: signs. Prolonged pregnancy is fraught with complications birth: bleeding and weak labor activity. Therefore, in women with post-term pregnancy due to acute fetal distress and complications of labor is higher frequency of cesarean delivery.
Pregnancy Week 41: uzi. Your pipsqueak is fully ready for the birth. By that time he already well developed all the organs and systems, the kid just continues to accumulate fat. Hair and fingernails continue to grow. Syrovidnaya grease practically disappeared, leaving only on the most delicate areas of the skin - in the armpits and groin.
Pregnancy Week 41: symptoms. In this period the woman may worry that the baby takes less than before, motor activity. Do not worry about this, your crumbs do not have space for active movement. The activity of the fetus can be checked by counting the number of his movements - 30 minutes should be 10 or more perturbations.
Pregnancy Week 41: signs. He left behind the fear of premature birth. Now she is looking forward to the birth date of your baby. "Dowry" for the newborn and the bag to the hospital collected. Where is the baby?
Do not worry and worry, a 41 week pregnancy is not considered post-term. DA - this is just the expected date of your birth. Prolonged pregnancy is considered that if the genera not come up to forty-two weeks.
We advise to check: When the collecting bag to the hospital
By the time your baby is terribly tired of the darkness, besides, he has to be very crowded in your belly. Pregnancy Week 40: uzi. Movement of the baby on the fortieth week of pregnancy slowed down, he looked forward to the onset of his finest hour - the birth. Now a child sticking out his chest. This is due to the high content of estrogen in the blood of women.
Your child asks out. Take it!
96% of babies are born head first. As soon as the fetal head erupt for vulvar ring obstetrician with a vacuum pump starts suctioning mucus from the respiratory tract of the baby. This allows the infant to make faster your first breath in life.
Pregnancy Week 40: symptoms. Anticipating the onset of labor, your body has long been preparing for this moment. And this long-awaited moment has come - you went into labor. Try not to get irritated and nervous over nothing. Now you need to save power for the important process - the birth. Prepare to be that you will be hurt. If you decide to give up the pain relief, remember you have the right at any time to change your mind.
Pregnancy Week 40: signs. The appearance of an heir you notify a loud cry of the new inhabitant of the planet Earth.
You've done an incredibly difficult job! For this feat awaits hysterically screaming and squinting from the light of your long-awaited baby - your treasure and your continued.
Shortly after the birth of your baby is measured and weighed. Then take your newborn will carry the first in the life of the toilet, getting prevention gonoblenorrei (eye disease) and bask. On hands and feet newborn attached tag with the year, the number and time of birth of the baby, as well as your name.
The average birth weight is about 3500 grams, length - about 48-51 centimeters.
We advise to check: The first signs of missed abortion