Runny nose. To him all used to it and do not consider what a special, worthy of attention. Of course, nasal congestion ill person brings a lot of inconvenience: red nose, headache, handkerchiefs and sidelong glances of people who believe you walking a hotbed of infection.
The causes of the common cold
However, nasal congestion is not always caused by the common cold. Where does a runny nose? What is popularly called is not quite euphonious word "snot" in medicine is called rhinitis. Rhinitis - is an inflammatory process that involves the nasal mucosa. Of course, to this inflammatory process has evolved, it needs an excuse. In most cases, this becomes a cause penetration into the human body different viruses.
However, in addition to the virus there are many variety of reasons that can cause nasal congestion. These reasons include:
- Cold ambient air or sudden changes in temperature.
- Eating spicy foods or hot spices.
- Enlarged adenoids, most often in children.
- Exposure to various environmental stimuli.
- The impact on the nasal mucosa tobacco smoke, especially in passive smoking.
- The presence of the nose foreign bodies.
- The presence of different structural defects, such as deviation of the nasal septum.
- Various allergic reactions.
- The presence of polyps in the nasal cavity.
- Various tumors of the nasal passages.
In order to reliably determine exactly what the cause of runny nose caused in each case, a sick person should seek medical help from a doctor.
Doctors distinguish between two kinds of forms of rhinitis: chronic and acute course. Acute rhinitis is often a symptom of acute respiratory diseases, such as SARS or influenza. The share of these colds account for approximately 70% of all ailments, most frequently they occur in children and adolescents.
Acute rhinitis occurs in classical type, in three stages:
Nasal congestion starts from the first reflex, stage. It proceeds as follows. The body of the sick person is supercooled, immunity decreases, and the vessels of the nasal mucosa dramatically expanded. As a result, first appears bright - expressed dry mucous membranes, and then edema, which causes a runny nose.
In the second, the catarrhal stage of development of rhinitis, the mucous membrane of activated virus. Due to the swelling of the mucous thereto surging increased amount of blood, which leads to revitalization of the glands that produce mucus. Sick man says quite abundant nasal discharge, having a liquid consistency. Significantly reduced ability to perceive odors.
Around this same time, a sick person begin to show damage other bodies related to the nasal cavity - there is increased lacrimation, voice change, there is a stuffy ear canal.
On the third stage of the disease is greatly reduced swelling of the mucous membrane, restores the ability to smell and normal breathing. Sami nasal discharge are much more dense. And if they change to a dark color - yellow or yellow - green color, the physician may suspect attaching secondary, usually bacterial infections.
The second form of current rhinitis - chronic. The chronic form of the disease most often occurs as a result of improper treatment of acute forms of rhinitis. Furthermore, chronic rhinitis can be caused by factors such as allergic diseases, professional unfavorable factors, the disruption of the blood circulation of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity. There are several types of chronic rhinitis.
- Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis
In that case, if the patient experiencing this form of chronic rhinitis, physician notes growth and a significant increase in the mucous membranes, and in particularly severe cases and bone tissue. The most common pathologies lead to such systemic acute rhinitis. And in addition to such changes with a very high probability of resulting in the uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictor drops.
The patient in this case complains of systematic nasal discharge, difficulty in nasal breathing and headaches. The largely disturbed sense of smell and taste, voice changes. Due to the fact that the sick person is forced to breathe through the mouth, mucous membrane of the mouth is constantly dry. This leads to a constant feeling of thirst.
- Chronic atrophic rhinitis
In that case, if the person suffers from rhinitis this form, it is a significant thinning of the nasal mucosa. As a result of a sick man complains of dryness and foreign body in the nasal cavity. Nasal discharge not abundant, but they are extremely thick and podsyhaya create crust. These crusts may hide under a bacterial infection. Most often, such nasal congestion occurs as a result of adverse occupational factors. The forecast is not enough in such cases is favorable.
Runny nose, cause allergic reactions, as is almost always chronic. Depending on the frequency of attacks of chronic rhinitis distinguish two forms - permanent and seasonal.
In humans, prone to allergic reactions, as soon as he is in contact with the allergen, there is a bad cold, profuse discharge, sneezing. However, nasal congestion and runny nose without a place to be. In the same case, if there is no contact with the allergen, the person remains practically healthy.
- Chronic vasomotor rhinitis
Such rhinitis appears in the case where there is a pathological change vessels of the nasal mucosa, due to changes in the organism. Examples of these changes include any differences in hormonal levels. Incidentally, this is why so many pregnant women often complain of strange rhinitis often occur.
Treatment of the common cold
Runny nose itself is not for the human body is no danger. However, if treatment of the common cold is wrong or stuffy nose does not treated, the infection can spread far beyond the nasal cavity. And then it is almost inevitable complications: etmoidit, sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and acute otitis media.
That is why it is so important to treat a cold. Many believe that to treat a runny nose does not make sense, since it goes away fast enough. However, this approach is fundamentally wrong. It is useless to strike out from their lives, and to take risks and to find out whether complications are not worth it.
Starting treatment of rhinitis is necessary as soon as possible. First, a human patient is assigned a strict home regimen. First, a person gets a chance to rest, and secondly, thus eliminating the risk of contracting ARI people around them.
Immediately nemedekamentoznuyu should begin therapy. The most effective heat treatments: the sick person should be as soon as possible hover legs, drinking hot tea, making inhalation. By the way. If a sick person is no tendency to allergic reactions, will be very effective inhalation with oils of eucalyptus, peppermint and tea tree. They can be carried out even when there is no inhaler. Enough to drip a few drops of oil per liter of hot water and breathe the fumes, after having covered his head with a towel.
You should also pay special attention to this question, as the hygiene of the nasal cavity in the period of the disease. For successful treatment is necessary to properly clean the nasal passages of mucus.
In no case should not be immediately vysmarkivat both nostrils. It should do so by turns, and note that the mouth should be slightly open. Such a measure would avoid excessive negative pressure and, as a result of injury to the vessels. And, of course, preferable to use disposable handkerchiefs to avoid repeated self-infection.
Drug treatment the doctor chooses depends on why there was nasal congestion, as well as exactly what stage the disease. For example, vasoconstrictor drugs should be used only in the initial stage of the disease. Moreover, their use should be brief - no more than five days. Otherwise there is a risk of pathological vascular changes.
In the second stage of the disease when the organism itself tries to get rid of bacteria and there is an ample cold, you can help him. Irrigate the nose it is advisable to salt solutions or decoction of chamomile and calendula.
In the same case, if the runny nose caused by allergic reactions of the body, you must take the following steps. Firstly, the maximum limit contact with the sick person allergens. And secondly, the sick person should as soon as possible to start taking antihistamines. By the way, these drugs should be prescribed only by a doctor.
In any case, if you nasal treatment is necessary. Do not underestimate the potential danger of the common cold. Any pathological changes in the human body must be eliminated as quickly as possible.