Petunia - is an annual plant, which is now very popular. Is cultivated not only in the garden but also indoors. Throughout the season, petunia blooms very bright and magnificent, but to achieve this, it is important to know exactly how to take care of it. Petunia used to decorate the terraces and balconies, and ampelnye cultivars especially advantageous to look in hanging baskets. Today we'll talk about what should be the proper cultivation of petunias and what its features.
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How to grow petunia?
Petunia, like any plant cultivation has some peculiarities. The first thing you should pay attention - this choice of location for the plant. This point is extremely important if you want to ensure proper care of petunias. The plant feels comfortable in an open, well-lit and sunny areas.
If the flowers are in shade place, then they will soon stretch out and form a lot of leaves that prevent the beautiful and abundant flowering. In addition, they will deform and lose decorative - agree, for the grower is not the most pleasant consequences. Well, if your apartment balcony is on the south or southwest side - it is the optimal option for the plant. Planting petunias in the garden, try to pick areas illuminated by the sun as much as possible.
Petunia - plant heat-loving, drought-resistant, but, despite this, the colors intense heat transfer is extremely bad and begin to quickly fade. In addition, in a particularly hot summer days petunia exposed to a tick, which is destructive effect on the root system and leaves with flowers.
Providing the correct plant cultivation and maintenance, it is important to remember about regular watering. Petunia planted on the balcony should be watered twice a day. Make sure that the soil does not dry up. In moist soil petunia grows especially well, but overflowing, and especially the stagnation of water in the pot should be avoided. Periodically spray the plants to help prevent tick.
Standard classic varieties of petunias not tolerate rainy, wet weather. This situation can cause rotting of the root system and drying of leaves. But more modern, relatively recently derived types of plants are more resistant to such weather.
For petunias growing on the balcony, it has a growing technology that is different from the one that is designed for options garden plants. It is important to ensure that the flower is not broken due to wind or heavy rain. So do not forget to monitor the forecast and if the expected deterioration in the weather, move the pots of petunias in a more secure and peaceful place.
It is equally important to petunias grew in a suitable soil. This plant prefers loam or sandy loam soils. If you are growing on the balcony petunia, prepare the soil for the plants this: Take two pieces of turf and the same hardwood land, adding one part peat soil and sand (preferably of the river). Such a composition is considered to be the most optimal for petunias.
Now about fertilizers, which is impossible without a full withdrawal. Using feeding and special nutritional complexes, you can provide the plant long, more abundant and beautiful blooms. Use compound fertilizers, which contain potassium. Fertilize flower need throughout the period of active flowering, an average of one to two times in two weeks.
Do not forget to periodically remove the flowers that have faded or distorted - this will petunias bloom longer. Removal of the ovaries (to prevent form and mature bolls) allows you to stimulate the creation of new plants and new kidney. But that turned out beautiful bush, use the topping. It will form a new branch of petunias - a plant acquires splendor, and its flowers are more expressive.
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Reproduction of petunias
Today petunia seedlings for reproduction can be bought in every flower shop, usually in the spring and summer. But you can grow the seedlings themselves. We just need to get good quality seeds. They need to sow in small pots special. This is best done somewhere in the middle of March. In order to get ready to complete seedlings need three months.
It is best to prepare the ground for planting in advance, moisten it well and sift. It is necessary to mix the seeds and sand. Note that the seeds to be distributed fairly evenly in the sand. Then they start to sow and then sprayed with water at room temperature supernatant. Spraying is best to use a spray. Ready planting cover film, and pots of seedlings future place on the balcony or on the windowsill.
It is necessary to ensure proper care and by seedlings. The most suitable temperature for the growth of the seed is considered to be twenty-one to twenty-three degrees. If the temperature is much higher than this figure, the seedlings will be extended too sick or one of the fungal diseases. The same can be said about the lack of light. Do not forget to regularly ventilate the place where the seedlings.
If conditions are optimal, the petunia seedlings appear within a week. When the seeds escalate film, remove it. Water the plants very carefully, lowering the temperature in the room to eighteen degrees. However, do it gradually to the future of the plant is not affected by the sudden change in temperature. A month after germination the seedlings they should be transplanted. If you want a bush grew more compact and lush, you need to pinch shoots. In addition, you can make the pick plants in special pots of peat.
Seedlings needs and tempering, which is usually carried out in April. Once the soil warms up, you will need to make a landing on the petunias stable, permanent place. The distance between the colors should not be less than thirty centimeters. If you have planted petunias on the balcony, do not forget that you need to choose the right size containers. It should not be planted petunias three or more in a single container of ten liters. If carried out a tight fit, then, again, the plant will be extended over and will look less decorative.
The predominant number of varieties of petunias propagated by seed method. But those varieties, which has double flowers, produce very few seeds, germination which quite low: only grows less than half. Because Terry subspecies best propagated by grafting. By the same method can proliferate and some hybrid petunias, for example, Class Surfiniya.
For this method of reproduction in autumn dig up the fallopian plants and place them in the pot. Now, cut the old shoots, and then place the petunias in a cooler, but well-lit place. There should be good ventilation, which will ensure the rapid growth of the plant.
Make sure that the pots were not at temperatures below ten degrees. Watering should be moderate. In the spring, cut the young cuttings. Typically, they are cut up to ten centimeters long. Each is necessary to leave the handle only two sheets (top), the rest of the need to get rid of. To root system is successfully formed, dip the cuttings, along with the lower part in a solution with phytohormones.
Then the cuttings are planted in moist sand or loose soil with good air permeability. The depth at which to plant the cuttings should not exceed four centimeters. Please note that the ground around these seedlings need to pour, and then a little trample on top and cover with foil or glass.
For a good rooting required temperature in twenty degrees and good lighting. In the case of short daylight hours is better to use an additional illumination in the form of fluorescent lamps. For this plant it is important that the daylight hours is not less than ten hours. A week after planting the cuttings begin to form its root system. And even then, when the plant will get the first sheet, it is necessary to cross into a pot larger volume.
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Fighting pests and diseases
Caring for any flower or tree means and prevention of diseases which are subject to specific plants. In the case of petunias which is considered fairly strong domestic plant diseases can provoke as pests, and improper conditions.
The most severe consequences bring fungal diseases. They can occur because of excessive irrigation or in case of too thick sowing. Incorrectly selected soil and provokes this kind of disease. Fungal disease often causes basal rot, also known as "black foot". In addition, you may notice a softening of the stem at the root of its parts. If you notice any of these symptoms, try as quickly as possible to process petunia fungicide. In addition, it is necessary to establish the correct watering.
Another fungal disease - powdery mildew. It manifests itself in the form of a plaque of beige or white, which affects and flowers, and leaves. This disease attacks a plant with strong changes in temperature or in the case of high humidity. This is most common in the summer. It is important to immediately remove the affected part of the plant, after which you need all of the remaining part of the gray handle.
To prevent the occurrence of fungal diseases, to carry out prevention, which implies the implementation of certain rules. Use a light crop land that immediately before landing must be steamed. Not petunias are planted too close to each other, and do not forget about a balanced plant nutrition.
Make sure that the soil was not an overabundance of nitrogen-based fertilizers. And, of course, do not forget about optimal lighting and temperature. Taking into account the above-mentioned rules and advice, providing the plant with proper care and attention, you quickly make sure that the cultivation of petunias is not complicated and time-consuming process, and the plant itself will please you by a "waterfall" delightful bright colors that beautifully decorate your home !