Just two smiling mother,
Two life care given,
Two fates, double exam
The two hope the two wings
The news of the pregnancy is one of the memorable events in the life of every woman. And imagine the reaction of a woman who learns that she is pregnant with twins? It would seem that the woman should experience the joy doubled. But often, parents feel completely opposite feelings: confusion, fear, discouragement.
These feelings did not be shy - it is absolutely normal reaction of any sane person on the news that it is a dual responsibility. Very soon you get used to this fact and accept it. Then you will experience quite the same sense that all parents expecting the birth of a child.
However, pregnant with twins has its own characteristics, which is different from normal pregnancy. In this article, we will describe for you a pregnancy for weeks with twins, and especially pregnant with twins, and its causes. With detailed information on what is going on with her and her body at all stages of pregnancy, the expectant mother will feel much more confident and relaxed.
What is multiple pregnancy?
People often hear the word "twins" and "twins", but few people know what the difference between these terms. The first thing to do is to understand the difference. As we all know from school biology, the formation of the embryo takes place after the sperm fertilizes the egg.
In that case, if the woman was simultaneous maturation of two eggs and both were fertilized by two sperm, there is a conception and subsequent development of twins. Once again I draw your attention - there is two different eggs fertilized by two sperm. And the egg and sperm cells have a different genetic code.
That is why twins can be born quite similar to each other - have a different eye color, different body, a different growth. Even the floor in children may be different. They resemble each other no more than ordinary siblings. This is called dizygotic pregnancy.
In the same case, if there has been the maturation and fertilization of one egg only one sperm in normal cases leads to the birth of a child. However, sometimes the body fails and the egg in the process of division is divided into two identical halves completely, which continue to develop completely normal way. However, due to the fact that the egg and sperm were alone, the genetic code is the same as in children.
Such children are called twins. Gemini are always born only gay, very similar in appearance, they have birthmarks are on the same field, a tendency to the same diseases. Even the character of the children, tend to be very similar. Such a pregnancy be called monozygotic. Usually, doctors can easily determine the di or monozygotic kids.
Causes of multiple pregnancy
The second thing to be told, this is what determines the birth of twins. Despite the fact that modern science and medicine are at a very high level of development, there is still no exact answer, why is the emergence of multiple pregnancy. The following are the main reasons for the birth of the twins, known today:
- The main reason doctors still believe heredity. A particularly strong influence on the possibility of multiple pregnancy heredity through the maternal line. Although father and heredity may also cause the occurrence of multiple pregnancies. Most often, this feature is transmitted through several generations, although exceptions to this rule are not so rare.
- Treatment of secondary infertility and often leads to multiple pregnancies. For example, the reception of many hormones stimulate the maturation and release of multiple eggs. In favorable circumstances they are fertilized, resulting in multiple pregnancy occurs.
- Pregnant with twins after IVF occurs in about 60% of all cases of infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization. This phenomenon is explained very simply - a woman sits in the uterus several fertilized cells. Some of them are killed, and two - three embryos survive and continue to develop successfully. In some cases, doctors may remove one - two embryos. However, in recent years, to reduce the number of multiple births, doctors began to practice the transfer of only one - two embryos.
However, despite the existing medical knowledge to predict what are the chances of multiple births, they are not yet able to.
Peculiarities of multiple pregnancy
Calendar pregnancy with twins is almost identical to the calendar pregnancy one child. Child development occurs in almost identical terms. Unfortunately, however, when multiple pregnancy complications occur far more frequently than other pregnant women. The most common problems such as:
- Iron deficiency anemia. Since children develop two, the need for iron increases twofold. In that case, if a woman does not take iron supplements in addition, there is a fairly high risk of developing iron deficiency anemia.
- Gestoses, bearing the name of the second half of pregnancy toxemia. Gestosis in the urine of a pregnant woman found a large amount of protein, blood pressure rises to critical highs.
- Placenta previa. With such complications as placenta previa, placenta is disposed so that it overlaps the opening of the uterus.
- Placental insufficiency. This complication, doctors say poor circulation, causing the kids do not get enough nutrients.
- Various anomalies of the fetus praevia - breech, cross-presentation.
- Intrauterine growth retardation children.
- Dissociated fetal development. In this type of a fetus is developing normally, and the second is far behind. However, if you are faced with a similar problem, do not despair and frightened - with timely initiated adequate treatment of life and health of the baby, nothing will threaten.
- Do twins is slightly higher than that of other children, the risk of fetal malformations.
- Furthermore, multiple pregnancies are much higher risk of premature birth.
In the first 12 weeks of pregnancy (first trimester) of about 20% of cases in women observed the phenomenon, called the phenomenon of the withering away of the ovum. That fertilized egg that dies, ceases to develop and gradually reduced in size. Uterus fertilized egg does not leave - there is up to the birth. This dead fertilized egg does not cause any harm to the child and does not interfere with normal development.
As mentioned above, in the second and third trimester threatened abortion and preterm birth in multiple pregnancy is highest. It occurs in about 75% of all cases.
This explains the fact that when a woman is pregnant with twins, almost throughout the pregnancy, doctors prescribe medications woman courses, relaxing the uterus. Often the drugs is insufficient. In this case, a woman hospitalized for treatment and preservation of pregnancy in maternity wards, where it remains until delivery, if the term is already large, or to improve.
Also, very often women, hatched two or more children, complaining about a variety of disorders of the cardio - vascular system. During pregnancy, the load on the cardiovascular system is doubled. And if Multiple pregnancy - then tripled, and even quadrupled. Of course, in such extreme conditions of cardio - vascular system can give failures. Any disturbances in the normal operation of the heart and blood vessels may result in adverse health effects as a future mother and baby. When the first symptoms of malaise pregnant woman necessarily should promptly seek professional medical help. The slightest delay can be a fatal mistake and lead to unpredictable consequences.
As mentioned above, at times multiple pregnancy increases the risk of iron deficiency anemia. In the case of multiple pregnancy placental tissue significantly increases its mass, respectively, increases the amount contained placental factors, which also provoke the development of anemia. Furthermore, during multiple pregnancies is significantly increased intravascular blood volume. Accordingly, the level of hemoglobin decreases.
Women who are hatching two or more children, often labor begins prematurely. Doctors call the main cause of this complication is the fact that the muscle fibers of the uterus in multiple pregnancies is significantly pererastyagivayutsya. Women who are going to become mothers of two children, it is necessary, with special trepidation and care about their health. At the slightest sign of malaise, seek medical advice.
Due to the fact that multiple pregnancy is classified as high-risk pregnancies, doctors such women are treated with a special, increased attention. Expectant mothers are far more every survey they visit antenatal clinics twice more often than other pregnant women. In no case can not try to evade it. After all, the health of your children is more important than a temporary inconvenience.
Diagnosis of multiple pregnancy
The question that almost all women are interested in, find out about what they will become mothers, it's - "pregnant with twins, the signs." Particularly relevant to the issue when the woman in the family have already been cases of birth of twins or twins. The possibility of multiple births have much higher than other women.
However, another way of how to identify a pregnancy with twins, besides visiting the doctor - a gynecologist. And for this it is not necessary to wait a long time - in our time doctors - gynecologists may establish a pregnancy with twins already at the first visit to the antenatal clinic women. Starting from the fourth week of pregnancy, obstetric uterus in size exceeds the size of the uterus at the same time, but in singleton pregnancies.
Some women try to find their own symptoms of pregnancy with twins. However, significant symptoms not and can not be. If, before the end of the first trimester of a multiple pregnancy can be assumed only by the size of the uterus, then early in the second trimester, the first ultrasound, the doctor can reliably talk about multiple pregnancy, visualizing multiple fetal eggs.
Sometimes there are cases when the first ultrasound the doctor renders two ovum, and then one of them dies. As a result, only one baby is born. In some, much more rarely, in a study physician sees only one ovum, whereas in reality they are two in the uterine cavity. Just sometimes a single fertilized egg covers the second and it is not visible. But as soon as the kids are a little older, they will not be able to hide from the doctor.
There is a misconception that the fact that multiple pregnancies can be installed by making a blood analysis on the value of the triple test for alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and estirol. In normal, singleton pregnancy, this test is an indicator of normal fetal development or, on the contrary, the presence of his malformations and chromosomal abnormalities. However, this study is not always possible to detect the presence of multiple pregnancy.
Peculiarities of multiple pregnancy and childbirth
As mentioned earlier, in multiple pregnancies a woman forced more often than usual, attending antenatal clinics. If pregnancy occurs safely, without any - any visible complications expectant mother from the second trimester of pregnancy, should visit the antenatal clinic every ten days. And in the third trimester of pregnancy, frequent visits to the gynecologist to once a week.
No less attention doctors pay such indicators as the weight of a pregnant woman with twins. If a woman awaiting the birth of a baby, its average weight gain is equal to about 10 - 12 kg. In the same case, if a woman is pregnant with twins, her weight gain will be about 15 kg. Under no circumstances should there be a set of excess weight. This can be very heavy load on the body of the future mother and cause complications normal pregnancy.
During multiple pregnancy a woman should be mentally prepared to go to hospital at any time. After all, in all cases, even the slightest deterioration of the pregnant woman with twins, doctors prefer not to risk the life of mothers and children, and guide her to the hospital. Before birth the mother also admitted to hospital two weeks before the expected date of delivery. It would be reasonable to prepare all the necessary things for the hospital, so that if the need really is, the expectant mother was no need to waste your time on the charges.
Management of labor in multiple pregnancies still causes a lot of debate among obstetricians - gynecologists. United tactics such births has not been developed until now. In addition, in each case, doctors take into account the large number of individual factors, such as:
- The course of pregnancy.
- The health status of women.
- The health status of children.
- Fetal presentation.
Particular attention is paid to doctors presentation and weight of the child, who must leave the birth canal first. That is very risky to conduct deliveries in a natural way if the first baby is in the breech position, and the second - in the head. In this case, kids can grapple heads, which greatly complicate the process for the generic, and may even lead to the death of children. Of course, in this case the doctors prefer delivery through cesarean section.
Very often, when there is a multiple pregnancy complication as anomalies of labor activity. It may be weak, or vice versa, too violent. In such cases doctors to avoid all sorts of complications, have resorted to drug correction labor. There are drugs that slow down or on the contrary, increase of labor.
In addition to the use of drugs and other methods of correction. For example, if labors is quite weak, the doctors after the birth of the first baby opened the second bag of waters, which significantly reduces the interval between the birth of the first and second fetus. In the case of children showing signs of hypoxia, physicians may take measures for an emergency surgical intervention.
As it has been mentioned above, in multiple pregnancies deliveries begin in two - three weeks earlier than in singleton. However, nature has taken care of this particular - the maturation of the lungs of these babies occurs before a child in singleton pregnancies. Thus, premature birth to twins, and twins are much less dangerous than other premature babies.
In addition, scientists have established fairly interesting fact. Do identical twins adjustment period after the birth takes place not as in dizygotic. Identical twins are much less adapted to the environment. They are much more likely to have chronic bronchitis, swelling and jaundice syndrome.
Home delivery in multiple pregnancies, as well as a singleton, most often occurs with rupture of membranes. Amniocentesis in multiple pregnancies longer eat at normal. Therefore, the muscle fibers are stretched significantly, resulting in a woman's uterine inertia occurs. That is why doctors prefer to perform an autopsy membranes even at small cervical dilatation. Given that labor in multiple pregnancies often accompanied by a variety of common complications, doctors prefer to conduct even natural childbirth in the background of an epidural.