The skin - the first barrier of the body. It reflects the attack pathogens, bacteria, viruses, involved in the regulation of the temperature and water balance, and performs many other important functions. Any changes in the skin - an occasion guard, find out the causes and eliminate them.
The rash on the body of a child - it's local or general transformation of color, texture and appearance of the skin, is not peculiar to a healthy body.
Rash in children - not always a manifestation of disease or a sign of illness. It may be a common response to an external stimulus, but often it indicates the occurrence of disturbances in the body. The causes of rashes in children known to more than a hundred. Among them - the diseases of internal organs, infectious, skin, parasitic, hereditary diseases of varying severity and the risk of allergic processes.
Characteristics of changes on the skin thoroughly studied and qualified medical science and in many cases are specific to certain childhood diseases. There are primary and secondary lesions rashes. Elements rash divided in morphology (color, size, texture, appearance, topography). Rashes are monomorphic or polymorphic. Monomorphic rash - is made up of the same type of primary cells, such as spots, bubbles, roseola, and polymorphic - of a few. The rash may affect the epithelial layer of the skin, but there are deeper, affecting dermis and underlying tissue with the formation of ulcers and erosions. I understand this is not easy, but, as a rule, as they grow older young children, mothers are authoritative experts, as one of the pillars of knowledge - practice.
Back to contents
Physiology rash in infants
The skin of infants are particularly prone to the appearance of the rash. During the first months after the birth of formation of the skin, which may be accompanied by the emergence of various rashes on the body of babies who doctors believe it is physiological. These states include "vascular phenomenon newborn" - Marble dermis. Every tenth child until six months of age with a slight decrease in temperature appear pale spots passing by warmth. This is due to delay expansion of capillaries and small vessels because of the age of underdevelopment of the hypothalamus and does not require special measures.
Almost half of the children in the first three days after birth, there is a toxic erythema. In the body of the baby except for the feet and palms of the vesicles appear, pustular rash - swollen red spots and blisters, which gradually become similar to mosquito bites. This is a manifestation of infection with herpes, Candida and Staphylococcus, are often mistaken for an allergic reaction, usually held for a week without requiring treatment.
Almost every second newborn on the face, and sometimes on the body, genitals and the mucous membranes sebaceous cysts appear as white or yellow bubble approximately 2 mm in diameter. And one in five - on the forehead and cheeks are acne - blackheads, pimples or blisters. They are about to trace the 3rd month, when are improving excretory function of sebaceous glands.
In the first month, 40% of newborns are not working at full strength sweat glands and ducts. Accumulations of sweat in the skin on the chest, neck, skin folds - form vesicles. This small bubbles of clear liquid or white pimples or red. If the sweat ducts are sealed in the deep layers of the dermis, develop allergic phenomena, climatic rash, or prickly heat red - bubbles appear with red liquid. They quickly dry up and peel off, causing severe itching.
Features of the skin of infants require strict compliance with the rules of hygiene and temperature conditions. But even the most caring moms know what diaper rash, prickly heat and diaper dermatitis in infants. They appear even with perfect care, especially in hot weather, and without presenting danger to the child, gives him trouble, making irritable and whiny.
Back to contents
Panic pigmentation: infectious childhood diseases
Eruptions on the skin of the child is accompanied by a number of infectious diseases. Features rash: the look, location, and nature of the propagation time from the onset of the disease, - in many ways to help determine the diagnosis. Rubella, measles, chicken pox, scarlet fever at the first manifestations may have similar symptoms.
Intrigue children's infectious diseases, accompanied by specific changes in the skin, that sounds like the beginning of their usual acute viral infections and sore throats.
If an unfavorable outcome, they often provoke severe complications, nephritis, encephalitis and pneumonia. It is important to quickly identify the warning signs of and call a doctor.
In the normal course of measles, rubella and varicella no need for a specific treatment or hospitalization. It is enough to ensure the child to bed and the implementation of the recommendations of the doctor, to isolate it at the time of virus activity. Kids up to the age of one year can be immunized against rubella and measles. It does not eliminate the risk of the disease entirely, but it ensures a steady flow and removes the threat of complications. In children ill with immunity lasts for life.
And in our time, children are often sick with measles ...
Measles - one of the most common acute childhood diseases, according to WHO, nearly 95% of the world population ill with measles. Peak measles - the end of the winter, and most outbreaks occur in kindergartens and junior schools. The incubation period - the time from getting the virus in the body until the severity of symptoms - lasts from one to two weeks. Onset occurs sharply, fever, runny nose, hacking cough, conjunctivitis and photophobia develop. A characteristic feature of measles - whitish lesions in the oral cavity, there is a second or third day after the temperature rise. After them, after 1-2 days, small pinkish rash spreads, first behind the ears and on the forehead, then on the face, neck, gradually covering the entire body and limbs, and increasing in size. This consistent development of the rash is very common.
The rash in patches and plaques with severe form of the disease becomes similar to hemorrhagic - Education nearly round shape slightly above the surface of the skin. When they have a diameter of 3-5 mm, and then can grow up to 15 mm and collected in vast areas of solid - erythematous patches, especially on the face and upper torso. After two or three days, the peak of maximum rash, accompanied by a rise in temperature to 40 ° C 5. After 4-7 days, the rash fades, leaving scaly areas of brownish pigmentation that are 7-10 days.
Measles often produces complications that may be severe: otitis media, bronchopneumonia, inflammation of the cervical glands, laryngitis and encephalitis. Contagious period (when an infected person is contagious to others) for measles begins with the first day of rising temperatures and ends at 4-5 days of skin rash (11 to 16 days after infection). Special treatment of measles requires, usually limited to symptomatic therapy, a diet with a predominance of liquid food and bed rest.
... As well as rubella and chickenpox
It is a common infectious disease - German measles. Generally rubella sick children aged 3 to 15 years. It is less contagious than measles, but it is a great threat for pregnant women: can lead to miscarriage or a 50% probability - to the birth of children with severe disabilities (blindness, deafness, developmental abnormalities of the heart and brain).
Disease begins with a small rise in temperature, runny nose, headache, sometimes - with conjunctivitis, but less pronounced than in the case of measles. On the back of the head, behind the ears, on the back of the neck swollen lymph nodes, and the soft palate are formed red spots. Numerous small rash spots (3-7 mm in diameter), visible on the first day of the disease - on the face, neck and inner folds of course, for a few hours to appear all over the body.
The skin around the spots can be red, and the rash is often mistaken for scarlet. Reserved The rash for about three days, at which time keeps fever. In some cases, the rash is almost imperceptible, and sometimes - the only symptom of rubella. Unlike measles, rubella rashes when localized in the folds of the limbs, back, waist, buttocks and less pronounced on the face, and phasing of their appearance can not be traced.
Varicella, or chickenpox begins raising the temperature to 39 ° C for 2-3 days there is a characteristic rash - smaller bubbles, vesicles larger than 5 mm. At first they were a little bit and they occur on the head and face, and then on the torso and gradually cover the arms and legs, leaving intact the feet and hands. The emergence of new bubbles is accompanied by fever.
The rash of chickenpox undergo distinct changes: the red spots turn into nodules 1-5 mm, for a few hours, they are filled with liquid, turning into vesicles surrounded by reddened skin. Bubbles burst, dry up to brownish crusts which gradually fade. This cycle is accompanied by itching, especially strong on the stage of bubbles and fresh crusts. If the crust is forced to remove - skin scars remain - pockmarks.
Infectious erythema suffer mostly children, more often - in winter and spring. When infection on the background of malaise, chills, headache, myalgia child worries. The next phase of the disease comes in 3 weeks rash on the cheeks, having a form of red dots in relief that blend in bright symmetrical papular spots resembling traces of slaps. Over the next two days the entire surface of the body quickly covered with swollen red spots with a pale middle. The rash is usually in the form of lace, sometimes it looks like the measles or hemorrhagic, and may be accompanied by itching. A week later, the skin is cleansed, but for some time, especially in the sun or after water treatment, relapses. In children with good immunity infection goes away without treatment.
Sudden rash (roseola) - is also a viral infection, her children are susceptible infants and young children. Disease begins with a sudden jump in temperature to 39 ° C and above, and the baby's skin is covered with pinkish raised rash on the type of allergy, especially abundant around the neck and torso. They saved less than a day. Exanthema associated symptoms may be liquid mucous stools, swelling of the neck and ear lymph nodes, at least - an enlarged liver or spleen.
Back to contents
Allergy and its consequences
Often children have allergic skin rash that is caused by the immaturity of their immune system. Allergic reactions - a response of the immune system to an external stimulus. They can be food products, household products, toys, plants, insect stings, drugs, and more. Allergic reactions may occur even after short-term contact with irritants, such as nettles or jellyfish.
Allergic phenomena begin suddenly, often accompanied by a bad cold, watery eyes and itching. In some areas of the skin or the whole body appear irritation, red spots, raised large blisters. The rash may be accompanied by a child swelling of the joints. In severe cases of allergic reactions, edema of the mucous of the gastrointestinal tract, nausea and vomiting, and nasal congestion, and the tongue may cause choking and even allergic shock.
By the nature of the allergic diseases include urticaria, the cause is the increased sensitivity of body tissues to some electoral agents. Action allergen increases permeability of skin capillaries in the dermis and receives the excess liquid causing swelling multiple papillary dermis, which leads to the formation of blisters, reddened skin framed. Hives can cause certain foods (strawberries, citrus fruits, shellfish), drugs, inhalants (pollen or household dust), skin contact with certain materials, plants, the sun's rays or cold, as well as insect bites, parasites, and even emotional stress.
Chronic allergic reaction can lead to unpleasant skin diseases - toxicoderma. The disease is accompanied by a mild rash on the body of the type of hives. Severe skin pustules formed, vascular or hemorrhagic spots, and possibly development eritodermii - thinning areas of the surface layers of the skin.
Of course, there are many other causes of change in children's skin from relatively innocuous, such as mosquitoes, to the dangerous - scarlet fever, meningitis, psoriasis. It is not always possible to protect children from the disease, but the efforts to strengthen the immunity of the child reduce the risk several times.