- Especially children's fractures
- Broken arm: Classification
- Injury offset or without
- How to identify the injured children
- Procedure fracture
- What treatment is indicated for fractures
- The recovery period
The human hand is composed of three parts, namely the radius, humerus and ulna. Today, just their fracture is the most common injury. After all, no one is safe from falls and injuries, especially a child. And in adults, and the elderly account for half of the injuries just on a broken arm. With regard to children, according to statistics, this injury they usually get if mundane circumstances, such as at home or on the playground, in the fall from a height, while walking or running, and the like. Bones of hand children damage twice as often compared to the legs. Superiority of the "popularity" takes a fracture of the elbow, and the second "sick" place a child - forearm. Severe multiple injuries, fortunately, much rarer -primerno 2, 5% of 10% of all injuries of the musculoskeletal system.
Especially children's fractures
Bone child differ from adult bone in that they contain more organic substances such as protein ossein and a shell covering the outside of their thicker, plus it is well supplied with blood. Also, the kids there are areas of tissue growth. These factors determine the specific characteristics of injuries in children, which we describe below.
Most often, the child can be seen fracture "green branches". It is so named because it looks the bone looks like it broke down, and then bent. However, this is not the most serious injuries. After displacement with bone fragments can be gentle, since fracture occurs only on one side. The second is to avoid damage to the periosteum helps dense that keeps experiencing load fragments.
Sometimes a broken arm, which occurred at a young age, in the future may have serious consequences. The fact that the line interface of the bone (radial, ulnar and humeral) often runs in the growth of connective tissue, located near the joints. Its damage can cause premature closure of the formation and shortening, curvature or a combination of both defects in the process of growing children. Therefore, parents should monitor their child and otherwise safeguard it from possible falls and injuries.
In contrast to adults, children frequently arise damage protuberances that hold the muscle
. In fact this crisis - this separation of the muscles and ligaments of the bones
. However, the fabric of the child grow together more quickly than an adult
. This is due to a good blood supply of the periosteum, as well as accelerate the process of formation of blisters
. Therefore, any fracture (legs, arms) the child will heal much faster than the older generation
. Another feature of the damage at a young age - the possible effects of self-correction of displacement of bone fragments after injury
. This is due to the functioning of muscle and bone growth
. However, keep in mind that one shift body can handle and "simulate" it, and the other is not
. Possession of such information is important for the laws of each parent
. As in the case of injury to the baby is up to you the last word in deciding on surgery and further treatment
Broken arm: Classification
Let's dwell on these kinds of injuries. They are traumatic and pathological. These arise as a result of disease processes in the bone, breaking its structure, the integrity and the strength and continuity. For such damage sufficiently small force from the outside, such as light or push pin, so sometimes called spontaneous. But a traumatic fracture of the hand - it is, on the contrary, a consequence of short-term effects on bone mechanical strength of considerable magnitude. According to statistics, it happens much more often pathological.
Fracture may also be closed or open - it depends on the condition of skin integument. First it considered aseptic, i.e. uninfected, as in this case the upper tissue integrity is not broken and all the bone fragments and the region of injury isolated from the environment. Open arm fracture different skin lesions. This can be either a small wound, or, conversely, an enormous gap soft tissues with their pollution and destruction. Such injuries are initially infected!
Injury offset or without
In this case, it depends on the degree of separation tissue. Fracture (radius or other) offset is considered complete if the communication breakdown between the fragments. It is an incomplete one, in which the integrity of almost saved (or fragments supported), that is, the connection is not completely dissociated.
Fractures of the hand is also classified according to the direction of line damage bone (ulnar, radial or brachial)
. Depending on this, they are divided into transverse, helical, longitudinal and oblique, stellate, T and V-shaped
. Do not forget that the child can occur fracture plane (skull, pelvis, shoulder), sponge (vertebrae, talus, heel, etc.) and long bones
. Here the problem is that they just form the basis of the extremities
. Often offset injuries occur bones, which, depending on their location, are diaphyseal (damage to the middle portion), epiphyseal (tampering end portion) and the metaphyseal
. In view of the affected area are distinguished fractures isolated (one part), multiple (two or more segments)
. It is also possible to combine the damage when, for example, trauma arm "completes" the other (cranial, abdomen, and so forth)
. Each case is different, not only the possible consequences, but also the method of treatment
. Therefore, watch your baby, tell him how to behave on the playground
. Because we all know that an injury as a disease is easier to prevent than to cure!
How to identify the injured children
Recognize whether there is a broken arm your child, it is not difficult. In this case, the clinical manifestations of complete bone injuries (radial, ulnar, and others) with displacement of the fragments do not differ from those of adults. The kid in an unhealthy condition usually excited, crying and capricious. A clear sign of a fracture is pain in the injured area, puffiness and swelling can be observed deformation of the hands and the inability to act, for example, move the damaged segment. In the area of the projection on the skin are often formed a hematoma. In the first few days after the trauma the child temperature rises to 37-38 degrees, due to the absorption of the contents of the bruise.
However, errors in diagnosis - are not uncommon, especially injuries in young children
. Thus, in case of break, epiphyses, osteoepifizeolizah and subperiosteal fractures that do not differ offset can persist limb mobility, its contours remain unchanged
. Only when there is feeling pain in a limited area
. So often diagnosed as a fracture injury, that is fundamentally wrong
. It is also difficult to recognize other factors: lack of history, the best expression of the subcutaneous tissue, which greatly complicates the palpation, fragments are not characterized by displacement as a consequence - the inability to identify the injury under the periosteum
. The danger of such unqualified conclusions - wrong treatment, which can then lead to a distortion of limbs and dysfunction of the hand
. Therefore, to make a correct diagnosis and be sure of the designated recovery methods, it is best to carry out X-ray examination
If your child is injured his hand in such a way, the very first thing to do - to immobilize the limb
. Thus it is necessary to fix not only the injured area, and two adjacent joint
. For example, if the fracture occurred on the forearm, it must immobilize the damaged segment of arms, as well as the radius and ulna joints
. This will reduce the pain and reduce the risk of further displacement
. And it can happen to any bone: radiation, shoulder, elbow - it all depends on where the strike occurred
. Then you need to impose on a limb bus from scrap materials (use a ruler, a stick and the like) and hang it on the dressing of a scarf or a shawl thrown over the neck
. If the hand looks unnatural, do not try to put it in the original appearance and level
. So you are only a cause unnecessary pain to the victim
. In addition, if the bones were displaced, their actions can enhance this effect, and even damage the soft tissues
If there is a broken arm and an open violation of the integrity of the skin, the wound is infected
. In such a case, it may start bleeding vessels damaged bone fragments (radiation, elbow or shoulder, depending on the injury)
. Therefore, before immobilizing the limb, it is necessary to stop the loss of blood, treat the wound and apply a bandage (necessarily sterile)! To do this, first wash your hands (or who will provide first aid) and release the damaged section of clothes
. Symptom arterial bleeding - bright red color of blood flowing pulsating jet
. In this case, push the container slightly above the site of injury - where there are no dense muscle mass, where the artery is close to the surface
. When bleeding from a vein push it below the place where the blood flows (dark and throbbing) and lock the arm in a slightly raised position
. If the hemorrhage does not stop, until the arrival of the doctor, hold the wound with a clean towel, a piece of cloth, gauze or other improvised means
If the child has an open fracture, but no bleeding, just remove from the skin torn clothes, dirt and other external stimuli. Rinse the wound under running water, and ideally - hydrogen peroxide. In the latter case can be formed foam, remove it from the edges of the injured area with clean cloth and apply dry sterile dressing. Open fracture (radius and others) is an indication for vaccination against tetanus. Consider this point, if the vaccination was not carried out, or expiration date has already expired.
Give your child a pain reliever (usually use funds on the basis of ibuprofen or paracetamol), but in any case, do not feed or poite as in the hospital may need anesthesia. What happens next depends on the correct diagnosis and prescribed treatment, so as soon as possible, take the baby to a nearby clinic. Survey conducted in children trauma center in some cities in the emergency rooms of hospitals, surgery and traumatology. This X-ray required!
What treatment is indicated for fractures
Bones children grow together rather quickly, especially in the primary school age (7 years), so the most common method vosttanovleniya is conservative. If the fracture is not accompanied by the displacement of bone fragments, simply imposing a so-called plaster splints. It does not cover the entire circumference of the injured limb, but only part of it. Typical fractures without displacement do not require hospitalization and are treated as outpatients.
In the normal accretion of radiation and other bones of the affected arm to attend trauma during rehabilitation will have to once every five to seven days. With proper dressing the child gradually decrease pain, and later they completely disappear. Movement disorders and sensitivity on the fingers of the hand should be absent. If the bandage was imposed unprofessional and squeezing limbs occurs, there may be such "alarming" symptoms such as aching, swelling, loss of or exacerbation of sensitivity. If there is at least one of them, see your doctor!
Unfortunately, not always easy helping the imposition of gypsum. In severe fractures with displacement (eg, intra-articular radius) may need surgery under general anesthesia action - closed reduction of bone fragments with the further imposition of gypsum. Such surgery takes only a few minutes, but due to anesthesia child leave hospital under medical supervision.
To prevent re-offset unstable fracture fixation can be used metal needles. Initially, the bone fragments (radial or ulnar forearm, depending on the injury) is fixed by them, and then applied a plaster cast. With this method requires special care and dressing, so the children are placed in the hospital for three to five days, and after the prescribed treatment on an outpatient basis.
The recovery period
In terms of radiation seam, elbow and shoulder bone is affected by several factors: age, the nature and location of the fracture. The average recovery of arms leaves 1-1, 5 months. A complex case with a shift will take a little more time.
Active rehabilitation period begins after the removal of plaster or other types of fixing (for example, spoke with severe fractures of the radius). At this time, it should encourage your child to develop movement in adjacent joints, increase muscle tone, supporting the ability to restore them to the injured limb. For this is a physiotherapy, special massage, swimming and physiotherapy. All these procedures need to take place over the course of recovery, without making breaks. A course of massage and physical therapy designed approximately 11 sessions - it improves the circulation of lymph and blood in the damaged areas, restoring muscle function and contributes to the development of motion in joints.
Particular attention during treatment should be given to child nutrition. Include a child's diet supplement containing the required group of minerals and vitamins.
In open fractures, which are compounded by a violation of circulation of blood, oxygen treatment is recommended - hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This method is used to prevent infection and promotes the activation of metabolic processes in the child's body. Initially, treatment is initiated in the hospital, and continued after the already under ambulatory. Sometimes after a compound fracture may be a violation of the injured arm and pain. In such cases, treatment can be carried out in special rehabilitation centers.