State of Hungary is one of the most intense historical and cultural monuments of Europe. Even in ancient times, when there was the great Roman Empire, the territory now belonging to the country, bordered with Rome in its eastern part. In these places settled by the Romans, Germanic tribes, the Slavs.
According to legend, during the great migration of peoples it is here (on the banks of the Tisza River) found his last resting legendary Attila - leader of the Huns. Many modern historians and treasure hunters, and still trying to find here jewels once owned by the warrior. In this area the Hungarian tribes arrived in 896, the architectural ensembles, which include temples and majestic palaces indicate stormy and changeable history of the peoples who lived here.
In addition to the monuments erected by man, arrived in Hungary, you will see a huge number of natural attractions.
That is why Hungary is considered one of the best resorts in Europe.
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Things Hungarian capital
Like any other state, Hungary has many museums dedicated to culture and the arts, not only his country, but also many other figures. For example, in Budapest, the Ethnographic Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts, and a large number of various attractions.
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Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest
This museum is the most extensive in the state collection of works of art. An interesting fact is that the museum was founded in 1896 and opened its doors to the public only 10 years later. But this is not the most interesting. In the museum you will not find any work that would be applied to the art and culture of the Hungarian people is. Here are just a collection of works of art by international artists and sculptors.
The museum building is located on Heroes' Square, which itself is also an attraction, and was built specifically for its use as a home for such valuable items in the field of fine arts. This can boast not every museum, since a very large number of such establishments located in buildings that once organized balls, or even those who have served someone residence.
The building, built in neoclassical style by the two well-known European architects Fülöp Herzog and Albert Schickedanz, more than a hundred years of providing the inhabitants of the country and, of course, many tourists coming from abroad, the opportunity to see the exhibition of paintings, which is divided into six divisions .
The first part - Ancient Egyptian, which were the basis of works of art from the personal collection of Eduard Mahler, Hungarian Egyptologist.
The basis of separation of Ancient Art is a collection of Paul Arndt from Munich.
The collection of exhibits of ancient sculptures occupy a special place swatches from Austria and Germany, made of wood. No less interesting visitors to the museum and a bronze statuette, which in the XVI century European masters performed on drawings and sketches of Leonardo da Vinci.
Exactly 15 drawings by Rembrandt, two sketches of Leonardo to the "Battle of Anghiari" and as many as 200 works by Goya fills the Department schedules and prints.
Romantics and Impressionists, at most, a gallery of new masters. These include such representatives of painting and fine art as Delacroix, Rodin, Cezanne and Monet.
A gallery of old masters especially lovers of traditionalism, a special place in her works take the portrait genre. The centerpiece of the exhibition is occupied by roughly 700 creative works of the old masters, which were transferred to the museum from the collection of Prince Esterhazy. When the museum was preparing for the opening, among these paintings it was attached a few pictures of the ducal estates kind of Zichy and Buda Castle.
The permanent exhibitions of the museum are often replaced by time. For example, sometimes the Museum of Fine Arts exhibits within its walls some exhibits brought from the Louvre and other museums abroad, to acquaint local audiences with the unique and priceless works of art.
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Ethnographic Museum, located in Budapest, is considered one of the largest museums of its kind in Europe.
The collection, gathered in this museum includes about two hundred thousand various exhibits, which include a lot of artwork, photos, Hungarian garments and accessories, jewelry worn by people and created over different time periods.
This museum aims not only to tell about the culture that created the Hungarian people, but also many other, both European and non-European nations. There are exposed objects, through which visitors to the museum can learn about the stages of the origin and development of cultures since prehistoric and ending in a civilized society. Exhibit Museum of Ethnography in Budapest successfully encompass several interesting for all sorts of visitors subjects.
This hunting, beekeeping, and fishing, and livestock, and even items pastoral work. Do not do without the submission of items of agriculture and crafts, life, and, of course, kitchen utensils. Exhibit of folk costumes and fabrics, types of housing, special items of customs and traditions, religion, entertainment and musical instruments have always been the most popular among residents and visitors alike. And the age of the museum visitors can be very different - old and young alike will find themselves something interesting in this set the exhibits. The museum has permanent exhibits that describe the traditional culture of the Hungarian people throughout its history and folk art of the country. Separately exhibited exposition dedicated to the culture and life of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Indonesia.
Since 1973, the Hungarian Ethnographic Museum housed in the former Palace of Justice, which was located in front of the Hungarian Parliament, on the area of Lajos Kossuth. Hungarian architect Alayosh Hausman drafted a building in the Wilhelminian style and sent to the project competition of the Hungarian Parliament building, but lost to the project, which is presented Emmerich Shteyndlya. It is not, however, led to despair Alayosha Hausman, as his project plan in 1896 was used for the construction of the Palace of Justice.
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Traveled to Hungary to visit the castle in the center of its capital, which is now called the castle of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, a few years ago, everyone called it the Royal Palace or castle. Since 2002, Buda Castle, along with some other sights of Budapest was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Visit the fortress can be reached by funicular Buda "Scicli" or on the bus, which runs from the square named Szell Kalman previously it was called the Moscow area.
Buda Castle has seen a lot in its history. The oldest part of the castle, of course, are poorly preserved to modern times, built in the XIV century. Duke of Slavonia Stephen, who was the younger brother of Louis the Great, who ruled Hungary. Hungarian King Sigismund did much to expand the castle, thus drove him to such an extent that became the largest in Europe in the late Middle Ages.
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The ups and downs of the fortress
In 1526 the Turks defeated the kingdom of Hungary, absolutely freely occupied castle kings and turned it into something terrible. The subjects of the Ottoman authorities have brought a lot to the rooms of the castle appalling state - some of them were used as a military barracks, and even stables, some part of the building was empty, and the internal state of the castle deteriorated eyes.
Great Turkish War brought not only to the Hungarian liberation from the power of the occupiers, the Turks, but also led to significant destruction of most buildings made in the castle in the Middle Ages. More precisely, it happened during the liberation of the city by the Allies of the Holy League of Buda.
In 1715, by the decision of King Charles VI began clearing the area of the Buda castle ruins, after which he ordered the start of construction on the same site of the new building complex of the palace. It was completed in 1749, however, stood the palace for only one century - in May 1849, during the revolution of the Hungarian army led by Arthur Gergeya surrounded the castle and seized it. This was not the end - as a result of the capture of the new Royal Palace was burnt down.
But the Hungarian government throughout its history are very sensitive to the attractions of the country, and especially those located in the capital. That's why almost immediately after the war between Austria and Hungary in the years 1850-1856. Palace was quickly restored. The first rulers now Austria-Hungary, which was crowned in virtually re-built castle was the Emperor Franz Joseph I.
The nineteenth century meant for the Buda Castle a new phase of its existence, and, of course, development. Autonomous Hungarian government adopted a decision to build a new building of the Royal Palace, which is not inferior to any of the existing residences at the time monarchs of other countries in Europe. This construction lasted almost four decades, from 1875 to 1912. Best Buda Castle Palace Europe did not. But immediately after the opening of the new Royal Palace and it unanimously recognized in Hungary and in the neighboring countries the most prominent building in the country. Not only was it yet another embodiment, the residence of Hungarian rulers, but also the embodiment of the entry of the state in the new century.
The Second World War did not pass Hungary and, of course, could not hurt herself Budapest and Buda Castle. What happened in 1944 capture of Budapest by Soviet troops ended as time in the castle, as it remained a group of German invaders, who for a long time to keep the defense and did not hand over the city. Heavy fighting, which resulted in all the fascist troops were routed, and the impact on the state of the castle, which is in ruins. After the war it was decided to restore the palace to its former composition in Budapest.
Excavations conducted by archaeologists, whose aim was to restore some medieval buildings, led to the discovery built in the time of Sigismund facilities. The massive reconstruction of the medieval fortifications, which made the Hungarian master, significantly changed the whole complexion of modern Budapest. Successful implementation of the project of reconstruction of the complex will combine some medieval castle built with the layout in the modern style. This fortress is the attraction, which Hungary has spent a lot of money.
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Szechenyi Chain Bridge over the Danube
One of the most beautiful places in Budapest where the Hungarian residents like to come is of the cross section, or as it is called, of the Budapest Chain Bridge, which is a suspension bridge connecting the river Danube. These two banks of one river is the historic part of Budapest and called Buda and Pest. Prior to the opening of the bridge in 1849 the capital of Hungary had no permanent bridge across the river.
The end points of the Chain Bridge in Hungary are Roosevelt Square, which resides on the Gresham Palace and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, located in Pest, and Adam Clark Square, where the zero kilometer stone and the lower station of the funicular Budapest, located in Buda.
The bridge was named after the famous to the whole policy of Hungary, Count Istvan Szechenyi, who has invested huge material means and physical force in the construction of this bridge. He more than anyone else at the time understood the necessity of establishing a permanent river crossing and created for the residents of the country and around the world is a miracle of light. The bridge was a major impetus for the development of economic and social spheres of life in Hungary. Thanks to him, finally united Buda and Pest, thus creating one large Budapest - Hungarian capital.