Sure, baby, especially in the first months, the perfect food - mother's milk. It not only contains all the necessary nutrients, enzymes, hormones, and protective factors, and easily digested, absorbed by the body of the baby. Therefore it is so important as long as possible to keep breastfeeding.
The composition of breast milk
In breast milk unique chemical composition, which has a kinship with the composition of cells and tissues of the child.
The composition of breast milk during lactation changed several times in sync with the way the baby's digestive organs are improved. In the first 2-3 days after birth produces colostrum - a thick yellowish liquid. It is very rich in protein and minerals, fats and carbohydrates is there a little bit. Colostric protein composition is very similar to that of blood serum proteins of the child, and therefore it is particularly easily absorbed and assimilated the best. Even the small amount of colostrum, which sucks the baby in the first few days, provide it with all necessary, and sets a screen diathesis.
After the third day of lactation produced "transition milk": the protein in it is smaller and the proportion of fat and carbohydrates increases. Much now and in the future depends on the quality of maternal nutrition.
The proteins of breast milk - digestible whey protein called albumin and globulins. Coarse protein, casein, appears only 4-5 days, and it will be much less whey - in a proportion of 20:80. Proteins clot in the stomach of the child in the form of a loose bunch with a large surface, easily accessible action of the digestive juices.
Breast-milk fats are digested by 90-95%. It's a fine emulsion of tiny fat globules. Special fissionable their enzyme lipase - also a component of mother's milk. The high concentration of fat-soluble vitamins A and E, necessary for normal growth and development of the child's body. The fat content varies throughout the day, rising in the evening. The first portion of milk contain less fat, and the latter (so-called "hindmilk") - more that also meets the needs of the baby.
Carbohydrates of human milk - mainly milk sugar lactose. In lactose bifidogenic properties - it stimulates the growth of the baby in the gut of useful microflora (bifidobacteria).
Most of the lactose is cleaved in the small intestine, but a small amount enters the large intestine, where under the influence of bifidobacteria is converted to lactic acid. This, in turn, inhibits pathogenic bacteria and protects the body.
The content of mineral substances in breast milk is optimal for the growth and development of the child. Calcium and phosphorus are in a digestible form and the ideal ratio (2: 1). Rickets such children are not afraid. All minerals absorbed from breast milk is ideal.
Protective factors (specific immunologically active substance and the cell components) - is also a unique feature of human milk. It has substance lysozyme destroys harmful bacteria in the mouth and in the intestines of the baby. In addition, human milk lysozyme up to 100 times more active than bovine lysozyme.
Vitamins in human milk completely satisfy the requirements of the child's body. And their composition is largely dependent on the fact that on the table in the mother. Remember that!
And one more irreplaceable quality of artificial mixtures of breast milk - the contents of a whole range of hormones that regulate growth and development of the child. There is evidence that breastfed babies start walking an average of 12, 5 month (artificial - at 14, 7), and the beginning of the speech, "falls" at the age of 13, 3 and 15, 2 months.
A more stable psyche, good contact, kindness, tender affection for someone you know - that the quality of people breastfed. After the baby eat milk decanted and treated for the prevention of fractures 2% tannic ointment, 2-5% solution of silver nitrate, 3% solution of methylene blue, 2% formalin alcohol, vitamin A. If an inflammation, nipples smeared sintomitsinovoy emulsion, which quickly lift its manifestations, kalanchoe juice, plantain, balm Shostakovskiy, 0, 2% solution furatsilina. Good effect gives local ultraviolet irradiation.
It is also necessary to observe certain rules: once a day to wash the breast with warm water and soap, to express milk to prepare as well as to feed the child - wash your hands thoroughly. Between feedings should wear a bra, and change it at least 1 time per day. Need to be especially careful if there were cracked nipples.
Mammary gland inflammation resulting from penetrating into the microbes. If his treatment is necessary to avoid stagnation of milk in the gland. And so, in spite of the pain, the child continue to feed and milk decant after feeding. Only in severe cases, especially if the milk gets pus, breast-feeding is stopped. Its high podbintovyvayut impose hot compress (simple, with an alcohol balm Shostakovskiy). The recommended physiotherapy. In extreme cases, prescribe oral antibiotics and surgical treatment,
How to avoid unnecessary trouble?
Each nursing mother there are times when it seems: the child does not have enough milk. Typically, this is a temporary phenomenon, lactation and then restored.
First of all take care of the correct mode and a balanced diet. You must have enough stationery food: milk, dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, and vegetables, fruits and berries. Milk production will increase, if for 10-15 minutes before feeding a child drinking a glass of tea with milk, yogurt, juice or broth hips.
You can resort to a special tool that stimulates milk flow. Specific effect is the use of nicotinic acid (vitamin PP). The drug is taken by 40-50 mg 2-3 times a day for 10-15 minutes before feeding the child. Two weeks is usually sufficient - lactation adjusted. Good 10-15 days drink Vitamin E - 10-15 mg two times a day.
Sometimes milk becomes smaller due to the fact that the mother's nipples are painful cracks appeared. In this case, feed the baby first start of the healthy breast and "sick" give when it is a little sated and will not suck so eagerly. Try several times to change the position of feeding the baby - this will reduce the stress at the most painful part of the nipple.
After graduating feed your baby on the nipple, leave a few drops of milk and let them dry. In general, when the nipple cracks as long as possible should not be covered by clothing (even at night). Sometimes it is allowed to lubricate the crack lanolin (other creams, ointments, oils are usually ineffective).
Increase the amount of milk will help to drink from carrots, dandelion, oregano, lettuce seeds, fennel, cumin, anise, fennel. Cook them a snap.
- Carrot juice. Drink at 0, 5 cups of two-three times a day. To make it tastier, add 1 tablespoon of milk, cream or some other juice.
- Carrot juice and milk. 2-3 tablespoons of grated on a fine grater carrots pour 1 cup of milk or cream. Strain. Drink 1 cup two to three times a day.
- The juice from the leaves of the dandelion. Thoroughly rinse with fresh young dandelion leaves, soak for about two hours in cold water and mince. Squeeze the juice through cheesecloth, salt to taste and let stand for 30-40 minutes. Drink half a cup 1-2 times a day in small sips. You can add dandelion juice sugar, honey, syrup, lemon juice.
- Drink from the seeds of lettuce. Grind 20 g of seeds in a porcelain mortar, pour cup of boiling water and put infuse for 3 hours. Strain. Drink at 0, 5 cup 2-3 times per day.
- Caraway drink. Cumin seeds (15 g), pour 1 liter of hot water, add the sliced lemon (or g of citric acid), 100 g of sugar and cook over very low heat for 7-10 minutes. Cool, strain and take on 0, 5 cup 2-3 times a day.
- Cream with cumin. 2 cups cream and 2 tablespoons cumin seeds, place in a ceramic dish (fireproof pot), cover and place on 30-40 minutes in the oven to languish on low heat. Refrigerate and drink 0 5 glass twice daily.
- Infusion of fennel seeds. 2 teaspoons of seeds pour a glass of boiling water, let it brew for an hour, strain. Drink a cold infusion of 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.
- Drink of anise, fennel and oregano. Pounded in a mortar anise and fennel seeds mixed with oregano (just take 10 g), and the Gulf of boiled water, leave to infuse for 2 hours, then strain. Drink 0 5 glass twice daily.
If the milk has decreased due to the fact that had worried, nervous system calm decoction or infusion of valerian, motherwort.
When it is necessary to increase the amount of milk after a premature birth, successfully used in recent years drug Reglan. It promotes the production of the hormone prolactin, which stimulates the secretion of breast milk. If all of which you have read above do not help, for 10-15 days after the birth the doctor may prescribe Reglan. His take 1 tablet 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before meals for a week. If necessary, after 10 days can be repeated.
Keep in mind that when taking Cerucalum sometimes observed weakness and drowsiness, but etiyavleniya pass quickly. Limitation only: Reglan is not recommended for women with a tendency to high blood pressure.
Power nursing mothers
Women, nursing month-old baby should produce about 600 grams of milk, three children - 700-750 g and 6-month-old - was 750-810
An important role is played by diet feeding woman. Good delivery and postpartum diet to include enough fluid, proper rest, and frequent stimulation of breast feeding the child will help you develop the necessary amount of milk.
As we have said, try every day to drink milk, kefir, yogurt (not less than 0, 5 l) have cottage cheese or cheese products (about 100 g), meat (about 200 g), vegetables (600-800 g), eggs oil (50 g), fruit (not less than 500 g), bread (400-500 g). It is recommended to eat a vegetable oil (20-30 g).
Increase lactation contribute to honey, melons, mushroom soups, brewer's yeast (drink and paste), walnuts, fish dishes. Follow the fluid intake - it should not be less than 2-2, 5 liters per day with all the soups. Very useful for 10-15 minutes before feeding a glass of milk.
Pay special attention to the content of iron in the diet. Nursing mothers need for dietary iron is 30 mg per day. Many researchers recommend that mothers of premature babies, twins, large and giant children during breast-feeding them take iron supplements (eg gemostimulin).
In recent years greatly increased the number of infants with insufficient immune systems. Therefore, avoid foods that can cause allergies in children. This honey, fish, citrus fruits, strawberries, chocolate, organic coffee, pickles, strong meat broth, canned products for industrial preparation, the surplus of eggs and sausages.
Strictly prohibited all alcoholic beverages, including beer.
If, in spite of the initial weight loss, a month after the birth you weigh more than you recommended (add with 0, 5-1 kg of your breastfeeding), you can follow a diet to lose weight. The best way to lose 0, 5-1 kg per week and avoid oily and junk food. Losing weight so fast, but not fast, you satisfy their nutritional needs and retain the ability to produce enough milk.
The amount of food and the amount of calories necessary on a daily basis you will depend on several factors. If you are very active, if you have a big baby or if you are breastfeeding more than one child, you need a daily intake of more calories to maintain their weight.
On the other hand, if you are less active and lure a child by artificial mixtures, it is possible that you do not need the extra calories. During the period of lactation should continue to eat as well as during pregnancy and control your weight, guided by the amount of calories you consume. Regular exercise also helps control weight.
Breastfeeding and drugs
Is wary of accepting medications. The fact is that with you will take these medicines and the child - they very quickly get into breast milk. There is a group of drugs that are contraindicated for women during breastfeeding. It tetracyclines, streptomycin, sulfonamides, nilidiksin, iodine, reserpine, corticosteroids, cytostatics, ergotamine, metronidazole, chlorpropamide. If the mother takes these medicines, the child may have hearing loss, stunted growth, hyperbilirubinemia, lethargy, rashes, digestive disorders, bloody diarrhea, vomiting. Of course, it also happens that the health of women forced to be treated. But in this case it is necessary to consult with your doctor, he will recommend the most successful treatment option.
Mixed and artificial feeding
Often, unfortunately, despite the measures taken to enhance lactation, breast milk is not enough. Then it is necessary to transfer the child to mixed feeding - to complement the missing breast milk substitutes. At the same time the most important thing - to keep the maximum possible amount of mother's milk.
Here are the correct steps: at each feeding apply baby to the breast (first one,
then to another), and only when the two are completely drained, start supplementation. This tactic is absolutely essential when feeding children during the first months of life, when every drop of precious breast milk.
There are "tricks" that the child did not lose the skill suckling. If a mixture of small, spoon-feed the baby from, otherwise he will get used to the easy flow of milk from the nipple while to get food from the mother's breast, it is necessary to make an effort. But if a lot of supplementary feeding, it is best to put it into a special cup, and only as a last resort, use a bottle, pacifier by the elastic and make a few holes at the end of such small that the liquid flowed rare drops, and the kid was working, trying to get enough. Note also that even if the supplementary feeding many still give it only after the application of the baby to the breast. Give the mixture in the form of independent feeding, alternating with the breast, it is not recommended, as this lactation quickly extinguished.
But what if there is no milk at all?
If it is found in the first months of life of the baby, especially if he was born weak, premature or injured, try to feed him the donor milk at least 2-4 weeks, and a gradual transition to a mixed first, and then on artificial feeding.
The main thing - to choose the right mix, given the age of the infants, the level of his physical development and health.
To produce artificial feeding breast milk substitutes - adapted milk mixture, the content of the nutrients as close to the composition of human milk. Most often it is dry powders that need to be restored, breeding a certain amount of water. There are several types adapted formulas:
- "Initial" - infant formula first 2-3 months of life, the most adapted to the peculiarities of the digestive crumbs;
- adapted formulas for children older than 3 months;
- mixtures which can be used throughout the first year of life.
What mixture choose?
From the best of modern home: dry mixture adapted "Nutrilak-1" - for babies up to 3 months of life and "Nutrilak-2" - for older. These mixtures enriched whey and social biologically active additives.
A wide range of imported and adapted milk formula for infants. Many have a number of advantages - contain digestible whey proteins, a wide range of vitamins, a number of biologically active substances that do not require boiling the reduction, provided with dosing spoons have a longer shelf life. For children, the first month of life can be recommended "Similac 40/60", "Frisolak 1", "Enfamil 1", "Humana 1". During the first year of life, such mixtures can be used as "Similac with Iron", "Nutrilon" "Nan," "Heinz" and others.
Choosing mix, pay attention to what age is indicated on the label and what is the chemical composition.
For example, for baby early age is better to take a mixture with a lower protein content (in the range of 1, 4-1, 5 g in 100 g of liquid) and enriched with biologically active additives such as taurine, carnitine alpha.