Unfortunately, the human body is exposed to a huge number of different diseases, as a completely trivial, such as a common cold, and quite serious, is a real threat not only to human health, but also for his life, such as tuberculosis.
It was on tuberculosis and will be discussed in this article, as well as about the treatment of tuberculosis folk remedies. Ill with tuberculosis not only adults but also children. Most often, the disease is common in older children, but also the possibility of infection in babies also can not be completely ruled out. Doctors - TB specialists who, strictly speaking, are treating tuberculosis, and saw very little crumbs, and have not attained the age of one year, but already infected.
The causative agent of the disease is the tubercle bacillus, named after the scientist who discovered it. The disease usually occurs in waves - it subsided, then flared up again, for a sufficiently long time - from several months, with the proviso that the disease was just diagnosed and a child patient began to receive the necessary treatment, to several years when the condition not treated properly.
The disease provokes complications of such as chronic blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and many - many others. In the diagnosis of the doctor should not be confused with tuberculosis, diseases that have similar symptoms, such as tonsillitis, sinusitis, pyelonephritis. For this there are special diagnostic methods, which will be later described in more detail.
Symptoms of TB
An experienced doctor is able to suspect that a child has TB even before the special survey, only on the basis of external characteristics and evaluating overall health. TB in children has the following symptoms:
As a rule, healthy children resemble a kind of perpetual motion machine - the energy they brims over, children are ready to spend hours running, jumping and lead tireless activity. However, fatigue child behaves very differently - he avoids the moving action games, at any available opportunity to sit or lie down trying, explaining his desire to just one word "tired." Parents often it is not only surprised but also frightened.
When irritability child hardly able to manage their emotions, such as anger and irritation prevail. A child can become hysterical and indignant at such a trifling occasions, which he used simple - simply do not zametil.- broken cup, commercials, broken pencil - any little thing can cause a wave of indignation.
- Deterioration of appetite
Strictly speaking, very good appetite boast only a handful of children. But, nevertheless, poor appetite, which is caused by a - or disease - in our case tuberculosis - significantly different from the usual, typical children reluctance is. The child refuses literally on everything, even the food that he had always adored.
Physiological characteristics of the sweat glands of the child such that the child until puberty practically sweats. However, if a child is infected with tuberculosis, his sweat glands produce sweat in copious amounts, resulting in a child constantly sweat - my mother notices that the clothes he is constantly wet, especially in the back, palms and moist crumbs.
Another sign of the presence of TB in humans are constantly enlarged lymph nodes. Unlike lymphadenitis, lymph nodes, soft, painless and have a loose consistency. Probe can be at almost any time.
The child may be present is a pathological phenomenon, as low-grade (not to exceed the mark of 37 and 5 degrees) temperature. The temperature is generally increased in the evening, for a long time. By the way - to shoot down this temperature there is no need - it only shows that the body continues to fight the infection.
- The increase of some internal organs
For very young children who have not attained the age of ten, when TB disease is characterized by an increase in some of the internal organs, especially the liver and spleen.
- Changes in the composition of blood
In laboratory blood tests revealed a change in its normal values - increased ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), which is a direct evidence of the presence in humans of any inflammatory process, increases the number of leukocytes (white blood cells, testifying to an emergency operation of the immune system) .
Diagnosis of the disease
In that case, if the child has found all or at least some of the above symptoms, the doctor decides to conduct additional examinations, which will allow to reliably determine the presence or absence of the child tuberculosis. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in children nowadays reliable.
After a preliminary examination of the child and to determine its state of the body, weight, features and other aspects of the body, the child makes a special Mantoux test. The child in the inner region of the forearm using a special injection is administered a drug that is derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by special technology.
After neutralized causative agent of tuberculosis - tuberculin, enters the body, in that case, if the child is infected with tuberculosis, to enter into direct reaction with antibodies. The injection site begins to form specific inflammatory reaction. After two - three days after injection of tuberculin forms a seal having bright - pink color, dense enough to touch, but when pressed on it immediately loses its bright color.
Evaluate the results of Mantoux test on the third day, by measuring the packed tubercle (papules) a transparent ruler, a sufficiently bright light is necessary in order to accurately determine edge papules. Note that the measured dimensions are not very redness and seals. Mantoux results of the evaluation are as follows:
- Negative Reaction - no reaction at the injection site is observed, or the size of the seal does not exceed 1 millimeter.
- Doubtful reaction - in this type of reaction to the Mantoux test at the injection site is visualized only redness of skin or papules size ranges from 2 - 4 millimeters.
- Positive reaction - such is considered a papule, exceeding in size 5 mm.
- Hyperergic reaction - a reaction in which the size of papules greater than 17 millimeters.
In addition to the Mantoux test for suspected child tuberculosis disease doctor must prescribe the baby X-ray examination of the lungs. In that case, if the child is infected, largely drawing changes the structure of light - he is magnified and becomes more pronounced, be sure to notice the doctor - radiologist.
Who is to blame and what to do?
In the event that carried out the survey showed that the child really is infected with TB, treatment should begin immediately, as soon as possible. Parents do not lose valuable time in panic and "debriefing", determining who is responsible for this disease.
In fact, no one is to blame. Despite the fact that in the 21st century, and the level of Medicine is on the staggering high, each year a huge number of people sick with tuberculosis. The society accepted that tuberculosis is a kind of social disease, which affects only the alcoholics, drug addicts and people who were in prison.
However, this stereotype is completely erroneous and lacked a no confirmed statistics or even the personal supervision of a physician - TB specialists, grounds. Tubercle bacillus is no respecter to any social strata and the degree of material prosperity, it affects the same parts as prisoners and people without permanent residence and prominent businessmen, scholars and politicians.
Children tuberculosis - is your trouble, but not wine, and certainly not a disgrace. None of the doctors would not have to think about anything bad. The task of doctors - to treat your child, and not to engage in rumor-your bones. And the fear that some of the third parties, in addition to you and the doctor know about your child's disease, too, should not - because there is such a thing as a medical secret.
Sometimes the disease is diagnosed at a very early stage, and sometimes - in rather poor condition. Of course, this aspect is dependent on many factors, including the parental care and expertise of the attending physician - pediatrician. But mostly it depends on the form in which the disease has begun tuberculosis. Doctors have identified two main forms of disease onset:
In acute onset of the disease, it begins suddenly, with raising the temperature to a sufficiently high numbers, pronounced weakness and sweating, coughing. At the beginning of your symptoms like tuberculosis can greatly resemble acute pneumonia or pleurisy. Parents can take the child for a bronchitis or the flu and attempt to treat yourself than only aggravate the patient's condition a child who does not receive timely medical care. But the doctor, in fairness it should be noted, also can diagnose acute onset of the disease like pneumonia.
This form of onset of the disease represents the greatest danger, as tuberculosis is almost never seen. The state of health of the child does not change, and even coughing and shortness of breath are not in all cases. Typically, the disease is detected either by accident during routine Mantoux test, in its initial period or as at the time when receives enough shape and start running health problems associated with chronic tuberculous intoxication.
Chronic tuberculous intoxication
In that case the tubercle bacillus is a child in the body for a long time, it will develop chronic tuberculosis intoxication, which is extremely negative impact on the health of the baby. The child appeared violations such as:
- Lethargy. The child practically does not react to any events surrounding it. He loses interest in previously favorite activities: going out with friends, groups, sections, study.
- Fatigue and irritability, which are already described above.
- Deterioration of appetite - the child can almost completely refuse to accept any - any food.
- Very enlarged lymph nodes. Moreover, these lymph nodes are often soldered together and form a group. The number of such groups, swollen lymph nodes can be very large.
- Mantoux positive for a long time, but not as pronounced as in acute forms of tuberculosis.
Incidentally, this weight loss and increased weakness, and there are first signs of tuberculosis in children.
Treatment of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a very serious disease, and therefore the treatment of TB in children should not be less severe. The treatment of this disease should be engaged in the doctor - phthisiatrician. Treatment is chosen individually, taking into account the results of the survey and the health status of each specific child. But still there is a regimen used in those or other variations in all cases.
The most important treatment is a chemotherapeutic treatment, which uses special drugs, which have a devastating effect on the bacteria which cause tuberculosis. Common medications - antibiotics used makes no sense, since the tubercle bacillus is not sensitive to their impact.
Nowadays, doctors - TB doctors use a specific number of drugs, which includes streptomycin (S), ethambutol (E), pyrazinamide (Z), Rifampicin (R). These drugs to treat tuberculosis recognized the most effective and used to treat tuberculosis not only in Russia, but throughout the rest of the world. For the treatment of the child modern medicine recommends the use of such chemicals as isoniazid (H). He is the most gentle against the body of the child and is the smallest number of side effects and complications that inevitably arise in the course of treatment with chemotherapeutic pharmacological agents.
Doctors - TB doctors are very careful to the question about the optimal treatment regimen. After correctly selected and prescribed treatment will not bring any benefit to the patient to the kid, but the damage can be very, very important. Not only that the wrong treatment of the risk of injury to vital internal organs such as the liver, kidneys, spleen and other, as yet about the risk of development of drug - resistant tuberculosis in any case should not be forgotten.
And this is the drug-resistant forms of TB is much more sad predictions. This is due to the fact that due to TB germs or improper drugs, mutate and stop responding to any effects of drugs. Accordingly, the treatment becomes extremely difficult and, most importantly, ineffective.
The phases of TB treatment
As already mentioned, the treatment of tuberculosis is very, very long and complex. Tuberculosis - it's not cold, and, alas, can not be cured by simple medications in just a few days. The entire treatment is divided into two main stages:
- The phase of intensive care
The purpose of the first - intensive - phase therapy is an active suppression of reproduction sticks Koch and the destruction of their colonies. For this purpose, doctors use a combination of four drugs: ethambutol, rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide. This treatment lasts for drugs during 4 months.
After 4 months of drug regimens is changing, and the sick child gets only two chemical drugs - isoniazid and rifampicin. At this time, there is a destruction of residual pathogens tuberculosis and regeneration of damaged tissues. As a rule, such a scheme of active treatment brings good results, especially if the disease was diagnosed in a timely manner.
- Phase maintenance therapy
The goal of maintenance therapy is to prevent secondary infection of the body of the child by the tuberculosis pathogens, which could possibly remain after the first phase of treatment. Moreover, it was during the last phase of treatment there is a complete regeneration of damaged tissues of the lungs. The duration of maintenance therapy is much longer than the first - it may take a year or two, or even three.
Traditional methods of treatment of tuberculosis
If it is a small child, the only option for the treatment of tuberculosis it is a treatment that offers the official medicine. Tuberculosis in young children should not be treated with herbs, as kids often have a heightened sensitivity to the plants, and can face the emergence of allergic reactions. But if a child falls ill with tuberculosis than ten years old, parents can try the recipes of traditional medicine, whose effectiveness has been recognized even by doctors - with TB. Traditional methods of treatment of tuberculosis will not bring any harm to the child, though, of course, provided that it is not a substitute for traditional medicine.
Dry grass Adonis spring you can easily purchased at any pharmacy. To prepare the broth you should boil one cup of water, pour into it half a teaspoon of raw materials and boil for about 3 minutes, then cool and drain using a gauze cloth. The broth should be stored only in the refrigerator, and not more than five days. Take a decoction of the child should be before breakfast, at the rate of one drop per kilogram of body weight of the child. The treatment should continue for at - at least three months.