Since ancient times, in the culture of different peoples of the world wedding traditions have been and remain one of the most striking and original. They manifest ethnic and religious traditions of a people. After the wedding day - this is the beginning of a new life for the young, the creation of a new family for the community of people.
Unfortunately, many wedding ceremonies and traditions forgotten in Russia, although interest has recently revived.
Ancient chronicles indicate that common wedding traditions did not originally exist in different tribes and customs were different. Polyana, for example, a very respected the sanctity of the marriage bond, the spouses are obliged to maintain peace in the family, mutual respect. And here at Drevlyane and northerners could simply steal your favorite girl in his tribe or the other and without any rites to live with her, and in a polygamous marriage.
The gradual unification of the tribes into one state come together and their traditions, including the wedding. Until the baptism of Rus all spheres of life of the ancient Slavs were imbued with paganism, and wedding ceremonies were no exception: the pagan gods begged the location for the new family danced around bonfires, poured water.
With the baptism of Rus' began to emerge and new practices, which significantly affected the right of the wedding, but for many centuries, until today, the echoes of paganism still heard in the Russian rites and traditions. There has been a merger of the two beliefs that create a unique, characteristic only of Russia, culture.
The main change in the wedding ceremony was the need of sanctification of marriage by the church. The rest of the wedding was of the nature of the former: mass celebrations, entertainment, "feast", often lasting for 3-4 days. By XVI century in Russia there was a procedure for the wedding ceremony, which clearly defined the role of each participant, wedding dresses, wedding and even stages Serve dishes.
Wedding ceremonies were Russian religious and magical actions intended to give the new family health, prosperity, harmony in relationships, children. In addition, one of the main problems of this rite was the defense of a young couple from the evil eye and spoilage, because we believe that in this day it is most vulnerable. To protect the newly-weds were designed to both humans wedding attributes. Thus, the veil of the bride had to hide it from evil spirits. A friend of the bride and bridesmaids should always be next to them in order to "confuse" the spirits. Wedding ceremonies widowed people have already passed in the more simplified procedure.
Traditionally, the most suitable time for a wedding in Russia were considered autumn and winter. It was a time free from agricultural operations. In the spring and summer only marriages concluded in the circumstances, such as pregnant brides, and in May, almost all marriages were concluded.
Also suitable for the wedding day was not so much: the wedding was forbidden in the post, on Shrove Tuesday, Easter Week, Christmas time, on the eve of Orthodox feasts, and even on the eve of Wednesday, Friday and Sunday, the day prior to the patronal feast of the church in which planned to make the Sacrament of the wedding.
Ready for marriage from the very first years of life: girls learned to farm, preparing dowries. Wedding ceremony in Russia obliged to present the bride on the wedding day to each relative of the groom a gift towel, groom - an embroidered shirt and pants, and his mother - three shirts, cutting at sundress, a handkerchief on his head.
Brides choose on shows that were held during the spring and summer festivals and patronal feast day. Chose a bride groom's parents, coordinating with the entire range of relatives, opinions guy does not usually ask. Without the blessing of their parents marriages were extremely rare, is considered unlucky and were condemned by the public.
Since it is usually women had no right to choose, they often resorted to divination, trying to anticipate what will be their restrictions when will the wedding. Gad often on Yuletide or Cover Day - on dreams, the mirror, the reflection in the water, in the candlelight.
Returning to the Russian wedding ceremony, say that after the groom's relatives agreed on the candidacy of the bride, they chose an intermediary - or matchmaker matchmaker, nimble-tongued fellow villagers who have been able to settle such cases.
Day, time and route of the matchmakers, kept secret. The rite of courtship has been furnished with lots of magical acts. Negotiations were conducted with either the bride's father or with her older brother and mother. On the second, the "official" the suit bride's parents were waiting for matchmakers and prepared the table, lit candles and lamps. If the bride's parents agreed to marry his daughter, he makes the marriage contract - "row record", stipulating the full range of issues related to marriages.
The bride gave the groom pledge - a handkerchief, which had greater legal force. A few days after that the bride's father or her elder brother came to the groom's house to inspect its facilities.
If the bride's parents were satisfied with the tour management of the groom, they invite his parents to the bride at the bride's home. For girls it was the first test of the wedding. Her dressing up, pounce on the face veil. Swat wound up a conversation with her, Woman often forced to demonstrate their skills, forced to walk, checking whether she is lame, father of the groom could see her face. If he kissed the girl on both cheeks, it was a sign that she liked.
In this case, the bride came to an end, "feast intoxicated." Shortly organized conspiracy during which ended drafting row record, and sets deadlines wedding. Collusion had legal force, it completed the rite Handshake: young fathers beat hand in hand, then shake hands, wrapped in shawls, shake hands, and then exchanged business handshake. Then they exchanged pies, hugging each other with wishes: "If you tell me yes Matchmaker new relatives."
For Handshake went rite of betrothal (or pilgrimage), this time the young kissing three times, and then exchanged rings. Betrothal was reinforced heavily or will sing - a joint feast. The bride at this time the future of distributed gifts to relatives prepared (towels, shirts, towels), treated the guests with wine, bowing to the ground before him. After the collusion bride anoint "sgovorenkoy."
From that moment she did not leave the house, she mourned her maiden life. The groom, on the contrary, not sitting at home every day superintending the bride's house with gifts. The evening before the wedding was called "hen party", the bride said goodbye to his family, the girl's life, freedom. Heard her wailing and sad songs girlfriends. At the same time he performs the ritual of unraveling the girl's braids. Woven into a braid tape before she gave her friends. With wailing girlfriend escorted her to the bath where hovered sent by the groom broom.
In the old wedding ceremony, which is usually held in the evening, it was called God's judgment. On the morning of the bridesmaids were equipped hero of the occasion: to wash, dress up, to hang decorations. The water for washing put silver. After that the bride was seated under the icons, she sang wedding songs. Then, when the arrival of the groom all was ready, the bride on his head pinned symbol of girlhood - the crown and solemnly taken out under the hand of the two matchmakers.
Ahead were women plyasitsy, followed karavayniki then Svechnikov with a massive wedding candles. Further carrying the wedding rings. The guests took their seats at the table, and the matchmaker asked parents blessing bride twist and scratching, then took off her veil and crown, brushing comb honey bride curl her hair and put on Kiku, then again laying bride veil. During this rite Svechnikov held a piece of cloth between the bride and groom. Feast continued.
After the third dish matchmaker asked the blessing of parents, and young were taken to the church. The guests got up, the bride's parents were holding the image. The bride and groom bow to the priest, the bride's parents transferred her to the groom. Father of the bride whip hit. ordering obey her husband, and handed the whip Suite.
After the wedding, the bride's veil from filming. The whole wedding ceremony was accompanied by a mass of people in the developed centuries will: who holds the candle above, who first set foot to the lectern, etc.
When leaving the church the newlyweds showered seeds of hemp and flax.
The groom's parents met them at the edge of the village or the gate of the house, father in law - with an icon and mother in law - with bread and salt. The bread was broken over the bride and groom on the 2 halves. Young parents bowed at his feet, and those blessed them. A pair of three circuits around the wedding table, then started the wedding feast.
Young at the wedding table did not eat, did not drink, but only received congratulations. When carried to the table third dish, the young were taken in Sennik, to the marriage bed.
With the departure of the newlyweds feast flared - covered "mountain" table, which is usually drove away from the bride. During the night the young several times unceremoniously lifted out of bed, taken out to the guests, who did not stop the fun.
Early in the morning young again awakened. They dressed and escorted to a table where the fun continued. However, it already was, as we say now, "sweet table". A little later, as the drunken guests were no longer up to the young ones, do not sleep tired and could quietly leave the meal and leave to rest.
On the same day the young prepare ritual bath. Wash them accompanied with songs, to mark the road brooms. In the bath matchmaker checked shirt bride to detect traces of virginity. Often, the fact of the innocence of a young demonstrated and villagers.
On the third day of the wedding the young organized test - she had to show their skills workers and housewives. The young wife lit the stove, chalk floors, cook dinner, and guests must have it every way.
Traditionally Russian wedding lasted three days.